(Term Definitions, Issues, People, Locations, Events in History)


10 Planks of Communism - (see Karl Marx’s 10 Planks of Communism)

2016 Election – Republican Donald J. Trump defeated Democrat Hillary Clinton on November 8, 2016.  Trump was inaugurated as the forty-fifth president on January 20 alongside his running mate, Indiana Governor Mike Pence.  Trump was elected with an Electoral College majority of 304 votes to Clinton’s 227.  Trump received 45.95 percent of the popular vote (63.0 million votes) compared to 48.04 percent (65.8 million) for Clinton.  Allegations of fraud led to investigations which revealed 7.2 million duplicate voter registration forms, usually in one or more States, allowing a voter to vote in person in one state and fraudulently by absentee in another.  Twelve States allowed illegal aliens to obtain drivers' licenses, likely resulting in over 800,000 ballots cast by non-citizens.



A Time for Choosing – One of President Reagan’s best known conservative speeches given in support of Barry Goldwater’s campaign for President in 1964. 

Abolitionist Movement – A movement to end slavery, whether formal or informal.  The abolition of slavery gained early success in Western Europe.  Anti-slavery sentiments were widespread by the late 18th century.  Various colonies and emerging nations used slave labor largely for financial reasons, using the inexpensive workforce to keep up with agricultural demands.

Activist Judge – A public officer charged with applying the law in order to administer justice, but also interprets the law, and modifies the law according to his opinion; a judge who legislates from the bench.

Adams, Abigail – Born: November 22, 1744, Weymouth, Massachusetts.  Died: October 28, 1818, Quincy, Massachusetts.  First Lady of the U.S., 1797-1801.  Her letters are considered to serve as eyewitness accounts of the American Revolutionary War.  Closest advisor of President, and mother of President John Quincy Adams.  Abigail was so active in politics that her political opponents came to refer to her as Mrs. President.  She was the first First Lady to reside in the White House.


Adams, John Second President of the United States, only Federalist Party candidate to achieve the presidency.  Born: Quincy, Massachusetts; October 30, 1735.  Death: Quincy, Massachusetts; July 4, 1826 (50th Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, same date as death of Thomas Jefferson).  John Adams and his son were only one of two father-son presidents in American history. The other presidential father-son pair is George H.W. Bush and George W. Bush.  John Adams was the first U.S. president to actually live in the White House, having moved in before it was finished.  He called Washington D.C. a “mosquito infested muddy cesspool”.  Adams defended British soldiers charged with murder from the Boston Massacre to show The Crown that The Colonies abided by the rule of law.  He assisted in drafting the Declaration of Independence in 1776.  Adams was the primary author of the Massachusetts Constitution in 1780, which influenced the writing of the United States Constitution, as did his “Thoughts on Government”, published in 1776. 


Adams, John Quincy 6th President of the United States, March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829.  Born: July 11, 1767, Braintree, Massachusetts; Death: February 23, 1848, Washington D.C.   Education: Harvard University (BA, MA).  The son of John Adams, the 2nd President of the United States.  He served as U.S. Minister to the Netherlands (1794-1797), U.S. Minister to Prussia (1797-1801), U.S. Senator (1803-1808), U.S. Minister to Russia (1809-1814), U.S. Envoy to the United Kingdom (1815-1817), U.S. Secretary of State (1817-1825), Member U.S. House of Representatives Massachusetts 11th District: 1831-1833; Massachusetts 12th District: 1833-1843; and the Massachusetts 8th District: 1843-1848.  Adams contested the 1824 Presidential Election, of which no candidate had won a majority of the electoral vote.  The House of Representatives, as per Article I. of the U.S. Constitution, held a contingent vote to determine the president, and Adams won.  Though a Jeffersonian Republican, his roots in his father’s Federalist Party left Adams with big government aspirations.  He called unconstitutionally federally funded infrastructure projects, and the establishment of a national university.  Many of his ambitious projects were rejected, partly because of the civil war being waged in the party between the National Republicans (of which Adams supported) and the Democratic Party (a push for democracy led by Andrew Jackson).  When Jackson decisively defeated Adams in the 1928 presidential election, the Democrats took over the party, and changed its name to the Democratic Party.  After his presidency, Adams remained in public office, serving in the House of Representatives, where he joined the Whig Party and remained an opponent to the Jacksonian Democrats.  Adams also became a vocal opponent of slavery, and the Southern power structure he believed was controlling the Democratic Party.


Adams, Samuel – Born: September 27, 1722; Boston, Massachusetts; Died: October 2, 1803; Cambridge, MA.  Adams served as Governor of Massachusetts, Delegate to the Continental Congress, and he was a Signer of the Declaration of Independence.  He was a leader in the movement that became the American Revolution, and was one of the principle architects of what would become the American System of Liberty.  , and was the cousin of the second President of the United States, John Adams.  Adams was an Anti-Federalist, viewing the Constitution as the creation of a national government, rather than a federal union of States, as it was being called.  He participated in the Massachusetts ratifying convention, listening more than raising objections.  He later supported the Constitution, provided that some amendments would be added later, which ultimately became the Bill of Rights.  He was known for his frugal lifestyle, even when later in life he became relatively wealthy as a result of land investments, some of which were given to him by his son when the younger Adams died at the age of 37.  Upon Samuel Adams’ death, the Independent Chronicle eulogized him as the “Father of the American Revolution.”  William Gordon and Mercy Otis Warren, two historians who knew Adams, wrote of him as a man selflessly dedicated to the American Revolution.


Agnew, Spiro – Born: November 9, 1918, Baltimore, Maryland; Died: September 17, 1996, Berlin, Maryland.  Vice President of the United States, January 20, 1969 until he resigned October 10, 1973.  He is only the second Vice President in American History to resign from the V.P. position.  The other was John C. Calhoun in 1832.  Agnew served as Governor of Maryland, 1967-1969.  He was a World War II and Korean War Veteran.


Alinsky, Saul Born: January 30, 1909; Chicago, Illinois; Death: June 12, 1972; Carmel-by-the-Sea, California.  Education: University of Chicago.  Alinsky considered himself a Community Organizer (Alinsky coined the term).  He was viewed as being a radical Marxist activist.  He authored, Rules for Radicals, Reveille for Radicals, and Thirteen Tactics for Realistic Radicals (published posthumously).

Amendment Process – Process that may be used to change the U.S. Constitution.  The proposal process may be initiated by Congress with a two-thirds majority vote in both the House of Representatives and the Senate, or by an Article V. convention upon application by two-thirds of the State legislatures.  In both cases, ratification of the proposals require a three-quarters approval by the States, either through a vote by their State legislatures, or by ratification convention.

American Revolution – Revolt of the Colonies against the British Empire, 1765-1783.  Armed conflict resulting from more than a decade of tensions building between the Colonists and Great Britain.  The American war for independence.

American Temperance Society – A nationwide organization founded on February 13, 1826 in Boston, Massachusetts whose mission was to outlaw alcohol in the United States.  Within five years of its founding, there were 2,220 local chapters in the U.S. with 170,000 members who had taken a pledge to abstain from drinking distilled beverages.


Americanism – A philosophy of freedom that actively seeks less government and more personal responsibility.

Anarchy – Zero government.  Supporters of anarchy believe that from chaos rises order.  They seek to destroy the old system so that a new political system may rise up from the rubble.  Anarchy is a transitional state of governance, transitioning whatever it destroys into oligarchy, or a similar centralized system, where the powerful few rule over the many.


Antebellum Period – A period in the history of the United States (largely focusing on the Southern United States, where the period is also known at The Plantation Period) from the late 18th century until the start of the American Civil War in 1861.  The era’s end coincides with the end of slavery in the United States.

Anthony, Susan B. – Born: February 15, 1820, Adams, Massachusetts.  Died: March 13, 1906, Rochester, New York.  American Women’s Rights Activist and Social Reformer.  Co-Founder American Equal Rights Association, 1866.  Co-Founder of the National Woman Suffrage Association, 1869.  In 1872, Anthony was arrested for voting in Rochester, New York.  Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is also known as the “Susan B. Anthony Amendment.”

Anti-Federalists – Opposed to formation of a federal government, particularly by adoption of the Constitution of the United States.

Aristocracy  Rule by the most politically savvy or best suited.  Criteria has wavered throughout history.  Deciding factors have been based on virtue, talent, or education.  In modern times an aristocracy is more often than no rule by the upper class, and an oligarchy.

Articles of Confederation – Agreement between the thirteen original states establishing the terms under which they agreed to participate in an organized, central form of government, adopted November 15, 1777, during the American Revolutionary War.

Austrian Economic Model – An economic model that draws from the laissez-faire concept (limited government interference, allowing the system to take its natural course).  The Austrian School of economics originated in the work of Carl Menger from the University of Vienna .

Autocracy – System of government in which one person rules with absolute power.




Bailey Bill – Income Tax introduced in April 1909 by Senator Joseph W. Bailey, a Democrat from Texas, designed to embarrass conservative Republicans when they voted against it.  The introduction of the bill was one of the factors that led to the proposal of the Sixteenth Amendment.

Bank of the United States – A national bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, by the United States Congress on February 25, 1791.


Bank Run – Occurs when in a fractional-reserve banking system (where banks normally only keep a small proportion of their assets as cash and/or gold), a large number of customers withdraw cash from deposit accounts with a financial institution at the same time because they believe that the financial institution is, or might become, insolvent.


Barbary Pirates – Muslim Ottoman Pirates who operated from North Africa and required tributes (monetary compensation) or war from non-Muslim vessels should they seek to tread through waters the Barbary Pirates claimed to be their own routes. 


Barbary Wars – President Thomas Jefferson refused to pay an annual tribute to the Muslim Ottoman Pirates roaming our trade routes, recognizing that if the United States was to be a trading country, “this will require a protecting force on the sea. Otherwise the smallest powers in Europe, every one which possesses a single ship of the line may dictate to us, and enforce their demands by captures on our commerce.  Some naval force then is necessary if we mean to be commercial.”  The two Barbary Wars during Jefferson’s and Madison’s presidencies, respectively, were waged May 10, 1801 – June 10, 1805 and June 17–19, 1815.

Bassett, Richard – Born: April 2, 1745, Cecil County, Maryland.  Died: August 15, 1815, Kent County, Delaware.  Veteran of the American Revolution.  Delegate at the Constitutional Convention.  U.S. Senator, 1789-1793; Chief Justice of the Delaware Court of Common Pleas, 1793-1799; Governor of Delaware, 1799-1801 (He resigned to accept John Adams’ appointment to the 3rd Circuit Court); Judge, U.S. 3rd Circuit Court, 1801-1802. This was one of the “midnight judges” appointments by President John Adams after his defeat by Thomas Jefferson.  Bassett’s tenure ended quickly, July 1, 1802, when Jefferson’s Congress repealed the law that had established his seat on the 3rd Circuit Court.  Led the convention to draft a new State Constitution for Delaware, which was approved in 1792.


Bastiat, FredericBorn: June 29, 1801; Bayonne, France.  Death: December 24, 1850; Rome, Papal States.  Bastiat was a Classical Liberal who defended the individual against a tyrannical state.  He was openly critical of socialism and other forms of statism.  He authored, “Petition From the Manufacturers of Candles” (1845); “The Right Hand and the Left” (1847); “Letat” (1849); “The Law” (1850); “What Is Seen and What Is Not Seen” (1850).  Bastiat taught that as wealth becomes increasingly gratuitous, property becomes better distributed, and the interests of capital and labor come to coincide.  With economic prosperity, the rate of interest falls, and although the incomes of both the capitalist and the worker rise in absolute value, that of the capitalist increases less, proportionately, than does that of labor.  Liberty has a natural tendency to create that equality which socialists want to institute by other means. 

Benjamin Franklin’s Speech Calling for Prayer – After weeks of disagreements during the Constitutional Convention, Benjamin Franklin delivered a speech appealing to heaven and recommending prayer before each session of the convention.  Most of the delegates heeded Franklin’s recommendation.  His recommendation was also the influence that established the tradition of praying before each session of Congress.

Bicameral Congress  A Congress with two houses.  The purpose of having two separate houses in a bicameral congress is for the purpose of the two houses to be different from each other, which creates a natural check and balance.

Biddle, Nicholas – President of the Second Bank of the United States.  Born: January 8, 1786, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Died February 27, 1844, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  Prepared Lewis and Clark's report regarding their western exploratory expedition up the Missouri River through the newly acquired Louisiana Purchase for publication.  Served on the Pennsylvania state legislature (1810–1811). 

Bill of Credit – A promissory note issued by a government on its own credit; unsecured paper currency or securities.

Bill of Rights The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution; a formal summary of those rights and liberties considered essential to a people or group of people.

Bills of Attainder – When a legislature declares the guilt of a person or group of persons, and punishes them without due process.

Blending – To form a harmonious combination. 

Bonus Bill – Public Works Bill proposed by Congress in 1817 of which President James Madison vetoed as unconstitutional.

Boom and Bust Cycle – Process of economic expansion and contraction that occurs repeatedly. The boom and bust cycle becomes more severe when artificially manipulated by government tinkering.   During the boom the economy grows, jobs are plentiful and the market brings high returns to investors.

Booth, John Wilkes – Born: May 10, 1838, Bel Air, Maryland; April 26, 1865, Port Royal Virginia (by gunshot wound).  Booth assassinated President Abraham Lincoln at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.  A Confederate sympathizer who strongly opposed the abolition of slavery in the United States.  Even though Robert E. Lee had surrendered four days earlier, Booth believed the War Between the States had not yet ended.  Booth’s assassination of President Lincoln was a part of a larger plot with a group of co-conspirators that included Secretary of State William Seward, and Vice President Andrew Johnson.  While Seward was injured, Johnson remained unharmed.


Boudinot, Elias – 2nd President of the Continental Congress, November 4, 1782 – November 2, 1783.  Born: May 2, 1740; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  Death: October 24, 1821, Burlington, New Jersey.  Education: Studied law as a legal apprentice to Richard Stockton.  Stockton was later a signatory of the Declaration of Independence.  Boudinot was a Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, New Jersey’s At-large district: March 4, 1789 – March 4, 1795.  In the early stages of the Revolutionary War, he was active in promoting enlistment; several times he loaned money to field commanders to purchase supplies.  Boudinot helped support the activities of rebel spies.

Bourgeoisie  Marxist term for the middle class, typically with reference to its perceived materialistic values or conventional attitudes.  In Marxist contexts the bourgeoisie is the capitalist class who own most of society's wealth and means of production.  A communal society does not tolerate anyone or anything that lives outside the narrative that equality must be maintained.  In communist societies, a person owning more than their neighbor was called being a member of the “bourgeois.”


Brown, Scott – Born: September 12, 1959, Kittery, Maine.  Republican.  Member, Massachusetts House of Representatives, 1998-2004.  United States Senator from Massachusetts, 2010-2013.  U.S. Ambassador to New Zealand, Assumed Office June 27, 2017 and to Samoa, Assumed Office July 28, 2017.  Brown’s victory in a special election for the U.S. Senate seat formerly held by Edward Kennedy in 2009 was viewed by many as a referendum against President Obama’s policies, including federal intrusion into the health care industry.


Burr, Aaron – Born: February 6, 1756, Newark, New Jersey; Died: September 14, 1836, Staten Island, New York.  Veteran of the American Revolution.  3rd U.S. Vice President, 1801-1805.  U.S. Senator from New York, 1791-1797.  Attorney General of New York, 1789-1791.  Known as being the political rival who shot Alexander Hamilton during a duel in 1804, during the last year of his term as Vice President of the United States.  While never charged for Hamilton’s death, the duel spelled the end of Burr’s political career.


Bush, George W. – 43rd President of the United States, Republican. January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009.  Born: July 6, 1946, New Haven, Connecticut.  46th Governor of Texas, 1995-2000.  Early into President Bush’s first term the United States was attacked by Muslim terrorists.  The September 11, 2001 attacks included two airliners flying into the World Trade Center towers (and a resulting collapse of the towers), an airliner striking the Pentagon, and an airliner crashing into the ground in a field in Somerset County, Pennsylvania when patriots on board fought back against the hijackers.  Subsequently, President Bush announced a War on Terror.  George W. Bush is only the second president in American History to assume the Office of President of the United States after his father, following the footsteps of John Adams and his son, John Quincy Adams.



Calhoun, John C. 7th Vice President of the United States, 1825-1832.  Born: March 18, 1782; Abbeville, South Carolina.  Died: March 31, 1850; Washington D.C.  Calhoun was a member of the House of Representatives, March 4, 1811 – November 3, 1817.  He served as the 10th U.S. Secretary of War, December 8, 1817 – March 4, 1825; 16th Secretary of State, April 1, 1844 – March 10, 1845; a U.S. Senator from South Carolina, November 26, 1845 – March 31, 1850.  Calhoun often considered himself an independent, having, in his political career, aligned with the Jeffersonian Republicans, the Whigs, and the Democrats on different issues at different times.  He began his political career as a nationalist, and a proponent of a strong national government.  In the late 1820s, his views changed radically and he became a leading proponent of States' rights, laissez faire, nullification, and opposition to high tariffs.  He recognized that Northern acceptance of these constitutional concepts may be the only way to keep the South in the Union.  The record of his stances later strongly influenced the South's decision to secede from the Union after the Election of 1860, and during the months preceding the inauguration of Abraham Lincoln in 1861.  As Secretary of State under John Tyler from 1844 to 1845, Calhoun supported the annexation of Texas as a means to maintain balance in the government for the slave States in the South.  He also helped settle the Oregon boundary dispute with Britain.  Later, as a member of the U.S. Senate, he opposed the Mexican–American War, the Wilmot Proviso, and the Compromise of 1850.  During his career, after the emergence of the Whig Party, Calhoun was known to align with the new party as if he was an independent, even though he belonged to the Democrat Party.

Capitalism  A term created by the father of communism, Karl Marx, to describe an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.  While capitalism may be wielded by either an oligarchy or a republic, it is commonly associated with systems of liberty (non-oligarchy).  An economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, by investments that are determined by private decision, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market. 

Carroll, Charles Born: September 19, 1737; Annapolis.  Death: November 14, 1832, Baltimore, Maryland.  Went by Charles Carroll of Carrollton, or Charles Carroll III to reduce confusion since many of his relatives went by the same name.  Education: College of St. Omer.  A signer of the Declaration of Independence.  He was the only Catholic, and the longest-lived (and last surviving) signatory of the Declaration of Independence, dying 56 years after the document was first signed.  He served as a delegate to the Continental Congress and Articles of Confederation Congress.  Member U.S. Senate: March 4, 1789 – November 30, 1792.

Case Law – The law as established by the outcome of former cases and the opinions of judges.


Cash Crop – A crop produced for its commercial value rather than for use by the grower.


Caucuses – A meeting of the members of a legislative body who are members of a particular political party, to select candidates or decide policy.


Central Government – Nationalistic government; a government system that is typically a characteristic of a unitary state.


Centralized Power – A centralization of all political power by a government system that is typically seeking a unitary authoritarian state. 

Chaplains of the House of Representatives and the United States Senate – Congressional chaplains hold full time, nonpartisan, nonsectarian jobs.  They are formal officials of the chamber in which they serve.  The chaplains offer public prayers at the beginning of each day of congressional business. They also provide pastoral care for members of Congress and others associated with the House and Senate, including staff, police and family members.  Every congressional chaplain since 1789 has been a Christian man, and of those nearly all have been Protestant.

Charter – A document issued by a sovereign, legislature, or other authority, creating a public or private corporation, such as a city, college, or bank, and defining its privileges and purposes; a written grant from the sovereign power of a country conferring certain rights and privileges on a person, a corporation, or a people.

Cicero, Marcus Tullius – Roman politician, orator, and consul.  Born: 106 B.C., Died 43 B.C.  Considered to be among the most prolific Roman writers.  Discovery of Cicero’s letters in 1345 by Petrarch considered to have been a primary influence on the dawn of the Renaissance.  Cicero’s writings were a major influence on the Framers of the U.S Constitution.

Civil Rights – The government established basic right to be free from unequal treatment based on certain protected characteristics.


Checks and Balances – An internal system in government where each part of government can counter the actions or decisions of the other parts.  This arrangement ensures transparency, and prevents domination of the government by any part.


Class Warfare – A conflict between different classes in a community resulting from different social or economic positions and reflecting opposed interests.  Karl Marx encouraged class warfare, considering it a noble struggle for political and economic power between capitalists and workers.


Classical Liberalism – Classical liberal principles [include] limited government, individual rights, private property, and free-market economics. It would be these principles that would unleash the potential of the common man and make Anglo-Saxon based societies the most free and prosperous societies the world has ever seen. 

Clinton, Hillary – Born: October 26, 1947, Chicago, Illinois.  Democrat.  Wife of former President William (Bill) Clinton.  First Lady of the United States, 1993-2001.  U.S. Senator from New York, 2001-2009; first female to hold that office.  U.S. Secretary of State, 2009-2013.  Democrat Party Nomination for President of the United States, 2016; the first woman to achieve the milestone of being nominated for president by a major U.S. political party.  Criticized for her part in downplaying the seriousness and enormity of the Benghazi attack on September 11, 2012, falsely claiming it was provoked by an obscure video.  On January 23, 2013, when asked about the false information about the attack, Clinton screamed at the Senators questioning her, “What difference at this point does it make?”


Clinton, William (Bill) 42nd President of the United States, Democrat.  In Office: January 20, 1993 - January 20, 2001.  Born: August 19, 1946.  Bill’s wife, Hillary, served as U.S. Senator, Secretary of State, and the 2016 Democrat Party Presidential nomination.  Mr. Clinton served as Governor of Arkansas, 1983 – 1992.  He was the First Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected to a second full term as President of the United States.  Reluctantly working with a Republican Congress that won unified control of both Houses in 1994, Clinton signed a welfare reform law, and a State Children’s Health Insurance Program.  Clinton was impeached in 1998 for perjury and obstruction of justice, relating to a sex scandal involving White House employee Monica Lewinsky.  The Senate acquitted him in 1999.

Closed Primary – A primary election in which only party members may select candidates for a general election.


Collectivism – The theory that giving a group priority over each individual in it provides for the greater good, practice of the ownership of land and the means of production by the state in the name of equity and justice.


Collusion – Conspire together.


Commander in Chief – Chief or Supreme Commander of a country’s armed forces.


Communal Property – A system in which all property is believed to belong to the community.  The result of one’s labor is placed in a central storage location accessible to all members of the community so that they may take from it as they need.  Personal wealth generally cannot be accumulated in a system based on communal property.


Communalism – Society based on the concept of common ownership; ownership and possessions, rather than belonging to any individuals, are ascribed to the community as a whole.  The concept later became known as communism.


Communism  Socialism realized; theory of social organization based on principles of common ownership, ownership and possessions being ascribed to the community as a whole, or to the state.  System in which all economic and social activity was once controlled by a dominant government (oligarchy), administered by the ruling elite of a single, and self-perpetuating, political party, but faded away as society came to accept the resulting utopia.  While some countries have been labeled as “communist”, true communism has never existed in human society, and is considered as being impossible to achieve due to the complexities of human nature.  

Communism, 10 Planks of - see Karl Marx’s 10 Planks of Communism

Communitarianism – A society where the good of the community outweighs the good of the individual; a common good conception of justice; a well ordered society without rulers that uses pluralism as the guiding principle.


Components of American Government – Federal: Legislative Branch (Bicameral Congress; House of Representatives, U.S. Senate, Executive Branch (President), Judicial Branch (United States Supreme Court and the inferior federal courts.  State: Legislature (Assembly, Senate*), Executive (Governor), State Court System.  County: Supervisors, County Courts.  Municipal: City Council, Mayor, City Attorney.  Citizen: The most important political office.

* Nebraska has only one house in its State legislature.


Concurrent Powers – Government powers shared by the State and the federal government.


Confederate States of America – After seceding from the United States, the Southern States formed their own country.  The new confederation used the U.S. Constitution as a model for its own. 


Confederation  A political system in which the units that make up the union retain ultimate authority for all internal issues, expressly delegating limited powers to a central administration or government for the purpose of administering the union.  It is a voluntary association of independent states.  Confederations are typically short-lived, and lack effectiveness in terms of defense of the union.  Confederations have existed both as oligarchies, and as unions of republics.


Congress – A legislative body granted the authority of legislative powers.  In the United States, the Congress is the only part of the federal government granted the authority of legislative powers.  The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D.C.


Conservatism  A belief that the original intent of the United States Constitution must be conserved, which includes a limited role for the federal government, support of, and for, traditional values, and a cautious response to change.  Conservatism in the United States champions preserving the republic.


Conservative – Someone who promotes conserving the traditional values associated with the United States Constitution, and the value-based principles that have served as a firm foundation for American Liberty.  A Conservative promotes moral and economic values beneficial to all.  A Conservative typically adheres to principles of personal responsibility, self-reliance, moral values, localism, less government interference in the lives of its citizens, and a policy or attitude of letting things take their own course.


Constituency – Body of voters who elect a representative to a legislative body; a body of customers or supporters.

Constitutional Convention – see Philadelphia Federal Convention

Constitutional Republic – Government that adheres to the rule or authority of the principles of a constitution.  A representative government that operates under the rule of law.

Constitutional Rights – Today’s definition defines Constitutional Rights as “Rights given or reserved to the people by the U.S. Constitution.”  However, our rights are divinely given.  Therefore, the Constitution goes not “give” us our rights, but simply enumerates some of them in the Bill of Rights.

Contract Law – Law dealing with the interpretation and enforcement of written agreements between parties; typically in contract law the rule is, "Either is is in the contract, or it is not."

Coolidge, Calvin – Born: July 4, 1872, Plymouth Notch, Vermont; Died: January 5, 1933, Northampton, Massachusetts.  Republican.  30th President of the United States, 1923-1929.  Vice President of the United States, 1921-1923.  Governor of Massachusetts, 1919-1921.  Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts, 1916-1919.  Member, Massachusetts Senate, 1912-1915.  Mayor, Northampton, Massachusetts.  Member, Massachusetts House of Representatives.  As Governor of Massachusetts, Coolidge’s handling of the 1919 Boston Police Strike (he fired the striking officers, and hired a new police force) was seen as proving that he was a decisive leader, someone willing to use a firm hand in the handling of difficult issues, and a strict enforcer of law and order.  The incident regarding the Boston Police Strike also gave Coolidge the reputation as being someone who was willing to stand against the unions, a notion that was popular among certain circles due to the fear by many Americans of the spread of the communist revolution into the United States.  “Silent Cal” gained a reputation as a small government conservative, and strict constitutionalist during his time as President of the United States who was willing to use the veto.  During his presidency he reduced federal spending, federal regulations, and tax rates, which in turn spurned a period of rapid economic growth known as the Roaring Twenties.  Coolidge’s economic policies also led to a one-quarter reduction of the federal debt.  While historians rank Coolidge poorly, he has been lauded as ranking among the best presidents in American History by those who embrace the concept of laissez-faire.  In his time, Coolidge left office with considerable popularity.

Corruption of Blood – Punishment inherited or passed down, inheritable qualities destroyed.

Culture War – Moral (and sometimes religious) conflict waged on the societal front.  In the modern era a culture war exists between secular globalists and Judeo-Christian beliefs of a virtuous society, localism and individual sovereignty.


Deadweight Loss – The fall in total surplus resulting from a market distortion, such as a tax or government project leading to a loss of economic efficiency that can occur when equilibrium for a good or service is not achieved or is not achievable.

Debt-Based Money – A debt-based monetary system allows banks to create money to be put into circulation through loans (debt), following the 'fractional-reserve banking' practice.  When a central bank creates the money it may create money through lending, to satisfy expenses, acquire assets, or to provide dividends.

Declaration of Independence The unanimous formal Declaration of the thirteen united States of America declaring their freedom from Great Britain, dated July 4, 1776.  Note: The word “united” in the above definition is not capitalized.  That is not a typo.  The word “united” is not capitalized in the text of the Declaration of Independence because the union of States was not a country yet, and the attitude of the time was that the new country was not a nation, but a voluntary union of States.  From the founding, and throughout the antebellum period, the United States was considered to be “The United States are” (plural).  After the War Between the States (American Civil War) the designation changed to “The United States is.”  In other words, prior to the Civil War, the emphasis was placed on the autonomy and sovereignty of the States, not the central power of the federal government or the country as a singular nation.

Declaration of War – A formal declaration by a government that a state of war exists.


Defamation – The action of damaging the good reputation of someone; slander or libel.


Deflation – The action or process of deflating or being deflated; reduction of the general level of prices in an economy.


Democracy  A system of government in which ultimate political authority over all political decisions is vested in the vote of the public at large.  Derived from the Greek words demos (“the people”) and kratia (“authority,” or “power”).  Some scholars will use the word kratos, instead, which means “authority,” or “rule.”  Historically, democracies have always served as a transitional system of government from free systems to an oligarchy.


Democratic and Dynamic Economic Principles – A free market that encourages individual participation, provides for upward mobility in the system, and unleashes the potential of the individual while creating freedom and prosperity for the society as a whole.


Democratic Processes – Citizens vote themselves; popular vote.


Depression – A long and severe recession in an economy or market.

Dickinson, John Born: November 8, 1732; Talbot County, Province of Maryland.  Death: February 14, 1808, Wilmington, Delaware.  Involved in government as an office holder since 1759, holding office as a representative to the Continental Congress from both Pennsylvania, and Delaware.  His final office was as a State Senator in Delaware from 1793 – 1794.  He served as the President of the Annapolis Convention in 1786, the body who determined the Articles of Confederation required amending, and scheduled the Philadelphia Convention for May of 1787.  The latter would be the convention whose body of delegates ultimately wrote the United States Constitution.  He was a Signer of the United States Constitution representing the State of Delaware.  He was the primary author of the Olive Branch Petition in 1775, in the hopes of avoiding all out war with Britain.  He refused to sign the Declaration of Independence because he felt reconciliation with Britain was a better strategy than confrontation.

Direct Taxation – A government levy on the income, property, or wealth of people or companies.  A direct tax is borne entirely by the entity that pays it, and cannot be passed on to another entity.


Divide and Conquer – Military and political strategy designed to create disharmony within an opposing organization so as to diminish its effectiveness.; Sun Tzu, author of The Art of War, wrote, “When ten to the enemy's one, surround him; When five times his strength, attack him; If double his strength, divide him.”


Divided Sovereignty – The division of authority of self-governance and autonomy between two constituencies.  In the United States the divided sovereignty is between the people and the States.


Divine Providence – The care and superintendence which God exercises over His creatures.


Domestic Tranquility – Peace at home.


Douglass, FrederickBorn: 1818; Tuckahoe, Talbot County, Maryland.  Death: February 20, 1895; Washington D.C..  Frederick Douglass was born a slave, but after his escape he became a civil rights leader in the abolition movement, advocating that the great emancipator is education.  He is the first African-American to hold a high U.S. government rank.  He was taught the alphabet as a child, then asked poor white neighbor children to teach him to read in exchange for bread.  He practiced using a Webster’s Spelling book which he carried everywhere he went.  He learned about freedom from a Columbian Orator he purchased at the age of 12 with money he earned polishing boots.  He learned the meaning of “abolition” by reading the Baltimore American.  He joined the abolitionist movement in New England, giving speeches.  His sons were the first two black recruits to join the 54th Massachusetts Infantry during the War Between the States.  Douglass met Abraham Lincoln three times, and was a registered Republican.  Douglass was the author of “Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass in 1845”; “My Bondage and My Freedom”, and “Life and Times of Frederick Douglass in 1881”. 

Dry Counties – Counties in some States that still prohibit the sale of alcohol.


Dual Constituency – A system where both the people and the States are citizens of the union.  The arrangement creates two separate bodies of voters.  A dual constituency is a prominent example of what makes the American System truly exceptional.


Due Process – The essential elements of due process of law are notice, an opportunity to be heard, the right to defend in an orderly proceed, and an impartial judge.  It is founded upon the basic principle that every man shall have his day in court, and the benefit of the general law which proceeds only upon notice and which hears and considers before judgment is rendered.  In short, due process means fundamental fairness and substantial justice.



English Declaration of Rights, 1689 An Act of the Parliament of England reestablishing constitutional matters and certain basic natural rights. Passed on December 16, 1689, the Declaration of Rights lays down limits on the powers of the monarch and of Parliament, and sets out certain rights of individuals including arms for their defense within the rule of law.



Fall of the Soviet Union – During the 1980s President Ronald Reagan of the United States isolated the Soviet economy by driving oil prices to their lowest levels in decades, and embarking on an arms race that ultimately bankrupted the communist regime.  Reading the writing on the wall, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev introduced a glasnost plan calling for political openness.  The plan eliminated any residue of Stalinist repression.  Perestroika restructured the economy, creating a hybrid communist-capitalist system.  As this was occurring, the Soviet Union was losing its grip on its Eastern European satellites.  In 1989 a political revolution in Poland and the toppling of the Berlin Wall spelled the beginning of the end of the USSR.  Communist Party hard-liners attempted a coup in August of 1991, which was unsuccessful.  By the end of the year Gorbachev resigned as leader of the USSR, and a week later the Soviet Union officially ceased to exist.

Federal Reserve ActThe Federal Reserve Act of 1913 established the Federal Reserve System as the central bank of the United States.  The law established the purposes, structure, and functions of the System.  While Congress has the power to amend the Federal Reserve Act, the system remains a privately owned bank.


Federalist Papers Series of essays written by John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton defending, and explaining the principles of, the Constitution in order to encourage the New York 

Ratifying Convention to decide to ratify the Constitution.

Few, William – Born: June 8, 1748, Baltimore, Maryland; Died: July 16, 1828, Fishkill-on-Hudson, New York.  Veteran of the American Revolution.  Delegate at the Constitutional Convention.  U.S. Senator, 1789-1793.  Opposed the First Bank of the United States.  President of the Bank of New York, 1813-1817.  Member New York State Assembly, 1802-1805.

Florida-Chad Controversy – Florida recount of the 2000 Presidential Election where only a cleanly punched ballot with a fully removed chad was counted.

Ford, Gerald – Born: July 14, 1913, Omaha Nebraska; Died: December 26, 2006.  38th President of the United States, 1974-1977.  Vice President of the U.S., 1973-1974.  Member, House of Representatives from Michigan, 1949-1973.  World War II Veteran, U.S. Naval Reserve, Lieutenant Commander.  Ford’s presidency lasted 895 days, the shortest in U.S. History by a president who did not die in office.  He is the only President of the United States not to have been elected (he had been appointed to Vice President before he became President, rather than elected as a part of a ticket, or as a runner-up in the presidential election).


Franklin, Benjamin Franklin earned the title of "The First American" for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity.  Born: Boston, Massachusetts; January 17, 1706; Died: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; April 17, 1790.  He was a Diplomat, Inventor, Writer, Scientist, Elder statesman in Constitutional Convention.  Franklin was one of the members of the Committee of Five who drafted the Declaration of Independence.  At the signing of the Declaration of Independence, he is quoted as having replied to a comment by John Hancock that they must all hang together.  "Yes, we must, indeed, all hang together, or most assuredly we shall all hang separately."  He secured a military alliance with France in 1778, and negotiated the Treaty of Paris in 1783.  Franklin is the only Founding Father to have signed the Treaty of Alliance with France, the Treaty of Paris, the Declaration of Independence, and the United States Constitution.  As a writer, editor, and publisher, Franklin published the Pennsylvania Gazette at the age of 23.  Later he also published Poor Richard’s Almanack.  He was later associated with the Pennsylvania Chronicle, a newspaper known for its revolutionary sympathies.  He was the first president of the Academy and College of Philadelphia, which later became the University of Pennsylvania.  In 1759, the University of St Andrews awarded Franklin an honorary doctorate in recognition of his accomplishments.  He was also awarded an honorary doctorate by Oxford University in 1762.  Because of these honors, Franklin was often addressed as “Dr. Franklin.”  During the American Revolution, he became the first United States Postmaster General.  He served as governor (president) of Pennsylvania from 1785 to 1788, the last governor prior to the 1790 State Constitution.  Franklin was the first United States Ambassador to France (1779-1785), and he also served as the U.S. Ambassador to Sweden (1782-1783).  For his work with electricity, he received the Royal Society’s Copley Medal in 1753.  At the 1787 Federal Convention in Philadelphia Franklin recommended that the delegates pray before each session, a practice that carried over to the U.S. Congress after the ratification of the Constitution.  Franklin stated that without being a virtuous society, no civilization is capable of freedom.  Since 1928, Franklin’s image has appeared on the U.S. One Hundred Dollar Bill.  From 1948 to 1963 Benjamin Franklin’s likeness also adorned the half dollar.


French Revolution – A 1789 revolution in France that followed a sequence of upheavals, leading to the downfall of France’s King Louis XVI, the rise of Robespierre and the Reign of Terror, a chaos wherein thousands were guillotined for political differences, and a succession of dictators.  Radicals saw the Catholic Church as the enemy and promoted in its place a Cult of Reason. The Revolution emerged in part from the rationalism of the Enlightenment which distrusted all established institutions. It inspired fear into European monarchs and aristocrats.

Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 – The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 supported the Fugitive Slave Clause of the Constitution listed in Article IV., Section 2. The law was designed to ensure under penalty of law that escaped slaves were returned to their owners should they turn up in the north.  Northern States were refusing to return the escaped slaves, however, and the federal government’s refusal to enforce the Fugitive Slave Act created, in the minds of the Southern States, a constitutional crisis.


Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 – A part of the Compromise of 1850, reestablishing the provisions of the 1793 statute providing for the capture and return of runaway slaves should they escape from a slave state and seek asylum in a free state, or a federal territory.




George Washington’s Farewell Address – A letter written to the American People George Washington at the end of his second presidential term.  It was originally published in 1796.

Gerry, Elbridge  Born: July 17, 1744; Marblehead, Massachusetts; Death: November 23, 1814; Washington D.C.  Served as the fifth Vice President of the United States (1813–14), serving under James Madison.  He is known best for being the namesake of gerrymandering, a process by which electoral districts are drawn with the aim of aiding the party in power.  Elected to the Second Continental Congress, Gerry signed both the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation.  One of three men who attended the Constitutional Convention in 1787, and who refused to sign the United States Constitution, because it did not then include a Bill of Rights

Gettysburg Address – Speech delivered by President Abraham Lincoln four months after the Union armies defeated confederate forces at the Battle of Gettysburg.  The speech was recited at the dedication of the Soldiers’ National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, November 19, 1863.  The speech came to be known as one of the most iconic statements of American national purpose. 

Glorious Revolution, 1688 Uprising that displaced reigning king, James II, with the joint monarchy of his protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband, William of Orange.

Grant, Ulysses S. – Born: April 27, 1822, Point Pleasant, Ohio; Died: July 23, 1885, Wilton, New York.  Republican.  18th President of the United States, 1869-1877.  U.S. Secretary of War, 1867-1868.  Commanding General of the U.S. Army during the conclusion of the War Between the States and much of the Reconstruction Period, 1864-1869.  Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox on April 9, 1865, bringing an end to the War Between the States.  President Johnson, when Grant was inaugurated, refused to attend the event, or ride with Grant when Johnson departed from the White House for the last time.  Unlike Johnson, Grant’s Reconstruction strategy included federal enforcement of civil rights, including against voter intimidation of Southern blacks.  During his presidency the remaining Confederate States were readmitted to the Union, and in 1871 he employed the Ku Klux Klan Act authorizing him to impose martial law and suspend habeas corpus should he believe it necessary. By October, the new law was used in South Carolina, with the help of federal troops.  By 1872, the Klan’s power had collapsed and the Black Community was voting in record numbers.  In 1871, he signed a bill ending the Indian treaty system; the law now treated individual Native Americans as wards of the federal government, and no longer dealt with the tribes as sovereign entities.


Great Awakening – Reference to two religious revitalization movements that swept the English Colonies in the 1730s and 1740s, and the United States from 1800-1830, particularly along the Atlantic Coast.  Both movements left a permanent impact on American religion and evangelicalism.  In New England, the events challenged established authority, and reshaped the dominating churches.  The First Great Awakening focused on people who were already church members.  The Second Great Awakening focused on the unchurched.


Great Depression – Severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II.


Great Recession – Period of a decline in economic activity primarily centered around the years of 2008 and 2009.





Hamilton, Alexander First Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, 1789-1795 (Federalist Party).  Born: January 11, 1757; Island of Nevis, British West Indies; Death: July 12, 1804; Greenwich Village, New York City, NY.  Considered a Revolutionary War Hero, during which he served mostly as General Washington’s assistant and trusted advisor.  He was a delegate during the Constitutional Convention from New York, solely representing his State after the remainder of the New York delegation stormed out in protest.  He was the author of 51 of the 85 Federalist Papers.  Hamilton was an early advocate of a strong central government; stating that establishing a strong central government was the key to achieving America’s independence.  In 1784, as a lawyer, Hamilton took on the Rutgers v. Waddington case, which involved the rights of Loyalists. It was a landmark case for the American justice system, as it led to the eventual creation of judicial review through Marbury v. Madison in 1803.  Alexander died after a duel with Aaron Burr on July 11, 1804 in Weehawken, New Jersey.  In the dual, Hamilton was fatally wounded, but Hamilton's bullet missed Burr.  Hamilton, injured, was brought back to New York City, where he died the next day, on July 12, 1804.


Harding, Warren – Born: November 2, 1865, Blooming Grove, Ohio.  Died: August 2, 1923, San Francisco, California.  Republican.  29th President of the United States, 1921-1923; died while in office of a heart attack.  United States Senator from Ohio, 1915-1921.  Governor of Ohio, 1904-1906.  Lieutenant Governor of Ohio, 1904-1906.  Member, Ohio Senate, 1900-1904.  In 1920 he was the first sitting U.S. Senator to be elected president.  His application of fiscally conservative policies made him a popular president early in his presidency, even though by the mid-term elections the economy had not completely returned to normalcy.  By March of 1923 the economic recovery finally began to take shape.  He was the first president to visit Alaska, and in a speech in Washington a few weeks later he predicted statehood for the territory.  The next two days, while on a train heading to San Francisco, Harding’s health became an issue.  It was discovered he was having heart problems, and the pneumonia.  He died of a heart attack on August 2, 1923.  His death shocked the country, especially because of his popularity.  A series of scandals, however, emerged after his death, damaging his reputation.


Harlan, John Marshall  Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, 1877-1911.  Born: June 1, 1833, Boyle County, Kentucky; Death: October 14, 1911; Washington, D.C.  Harlan was nominated to the U.S. Supreme Court by President Rutherford Hayes, a Republican President.  Harland, prior to his time on the U.S. Supreme Court, served as Attorney General of Kentucky, 1863-1867.  He originally considered himself a member of the Whig Party, became a Democrat during the War Between the States, and then converted to the Republican Party during the Reconstruction Era.  He strongly supported the union, even though he supported slavery.  He later became a supporter of civil rights, and changed his opinion about the Thirteenth Amendment after the election of Ulysses S. Grant as President in 1868.


Harrison, William Henry “Old Tippecanoe” – Born: February 9, 1773, Charles City County, Virginia; Died: April 4, 1841, White House, Washington, D.C.  Whig.  9th President of the United States, 1841-1841.  Third oldest person sworn in as President (only Ronald Reagan and Donald Trump were older).  Famous Military Veteran of The Battle of Tippecanoe (Tecumseh’s War), and the War of 1812.  U.S. Senator from Ohio, 1825-1828.  Member, House of Representatives from Ohio, 1816-1819.  Governor Indiana Territory, 1801-1812.  Member, U.S. House of Representatives from the Northwest Territory (Delegate), 1799-1800.  Secretary of the Northwest Territory, 1798-1799.  Served the shortest tenure in United States presidential history at thirty-one days.  Son of Founding Father Benjamin Harrison V. and paternal grandfather of Benjamin Harrison, 23rd President of the United States.


Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich – Born: August 27, 1770, Stuttgart, Germany.  Died: November 14, 1831.  A key figure in the development of his era’s articulation of German idealism.  The political philosophies of German thinkers such as Karl Marx and Friedrich Nietzsche find their genesis in Hegel’s reasoning.  An admirer of the French Revolution.  He believed the spirit of revolution was travelling, and while writing “The Phenomenology of Spirit,” his impression was that the revolution’s next target would be Germany.  “Left Hegelians” interpreted Hegel’s works as calling for a revolution that advocates atheism in religion, and democracy in politics.  Hegel taught that cultural and societal fulfillment cannot be reached until the state absorbs the family and civil society.  An individual’s “supreme duty is to be a member of the state.”  “Only through being a member of the state that the individual himself has objectivity, truth, and ethical life…[and] are happy even to sacrifice their lives for the State.”  Late Nineteenth and early Twentieth Century applications of Hegel’s philosophies shaped the thinking of groups like the Fabian Society, Marxism, and Fascism.


Helvetius, Claude Adrien  – Born: January 26, 1715, Paris France; Died: December 26, 1771, Paris France.  French Philosopher who, in his 1758 work, De l'esprit (On Mind), proposed that all human faculties are attributes of mere physical sensation, and that the only real motive is self-interest, therefore there is no good and evil (no such thing as absolute right), only competitive pleasures.  Therefore, justice is relative, and changes according to customs.  The materialist aspects of his writings posed to be a great influence on Karl Marx, who later called the materialism of Helvetius “the social basis of communism.”


Henry, Patrick – “The Trumpet and The Voice of the American Revolution”.  Born: May 29, 1736; Studley, Virginia; Death: June 6, 1799; Brookneal, Virginia.  Best known for his quote: “Give me liberty, or give me death.”  In 1760 he secured his law license.  An active force in the growing rebellion against Britain, Henry had the remarkable ability to translate his political ideology into the language of the common man. He was selected to serve as a delegate to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia in 1774.  Elected the first governor of Virginia in 1776.  An anti-federalist who feared the creation of a strong central government.  In 1787, he turned down an opportunity to attend the Constitution Convention in Philadelphia.


Hobbes, Thomas – Born: April 5, 1588, Westport, Wiltshire, England.  Death: December 4, 1679, Derbyshire, United Kingdom.  Hobbes was an English political philosopher who was best known for his books, “The Elements of Law” (1640), “De Cive” [On the Citizen] (1642), and “Leviathan” (1651).  In “Leviathan”, Hobbes argues for the necessity and natural evolution of the social contract.  His political philosophy is considered to have been a major influence upon the likes of John Locke, and Jean Jacques Rousseau.


Hoover, Herbert – Born: August 10, 1874, West Branch, Iowa.  Died: October 20, 1964, New York City, New York.  Republican.  31st President of the United States, 1929-1933.  U.S. Secretary of Commerce, 1921-1928.  Director of the U.S. Food Administration.  Hoover was President of the United States when the Stock Market crashed in 1929, launching the world into the Great Depression.  His largely progressive policies failed to stop the worsening of the depression, and he lost by a landslide to Franklin Delano Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election.  After recognizing the failure of progressive policies during his own presidency, when Roosevelt took office Hoover took on a more conservative stance and advocated against Roosevelt’s New Deal policies.





Jackson, Andrew 7th President of the United States, March 4, 1829 – March 4, 1837.  Democrat.  Born: March 15, 1767; Waxhaw Settlement between the Provinces of North Carolina and South Carolina.  Died: June 8, 1845; Nashville Tennessee.  He served as a member of the House of Representatives from the State of Tennessee, December 4, 1796 – September 26, 1797; as Military Governor of Florida, March 10, 1821 – December 31, 1821; U.S. Senator from Tennessee, March 4, 1823 – October 14, 1825.  Considered the Father of the Democratic Party.  As a soldier, Jackson was appointed colonel of the Tennessee militia.  He was elected commander of the same the following year.  He served in the Creek War of 1813–1814, winning the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. The subsequent Treaty required the Creek Indians to surrender vast lands present-day Alabama and Georgia.  He also served in the War of 1812 with the British, achieving a victory in 1815 at the Battle of New Orleans which gave him countrywide recognition.  Jackson then led U.S. forces in the First Seminole War, which led to the annexation of Florida from Spain. Jackson briefly served as Florida's first territorial governor before returning to the Senate.


While Jackson was eventually elected President in 1828, he ran for president in 1824, winning a plurality of the popular and electoral vote.  With no candidate able to claim an electoral majority, the House of Representatives elected John Quincy Adams.  Jackson’s supporters proclaimed that the election was the result of a "corrupt bargain."  A proponent of pure democracy, under Andrew Jackson’s supporters’ encouragement, the Jeffersonian Republicans changed their name to the Democratic Party.  Jackson was one of the primary voices that led to a change in the Electoral College from independent electors to electors who would be expected to vote in a matching manner with a popular vote by the voters in each State.


Jackson, James Born: September 21, 1757; Moretonhampstead, Devonshire, England; Death: March 19, 1806; Washington D.C.  Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1789 until 1791; U.S. Senator from Georgia 1793 to 1795, and from 1801 until his death in 1806; Governor of Georgia, 1798 to 1801.  Was one of those who were gravely concerned about the addition of a Bill of Rights, considering it unnecessary and redundant.  On the floor of the House of Representatives, Mr. Jackson voiced his concerns about the proposal of amendments (Bill of Rights) at such an early juncture.  Like Madison, his concern over an insertion of a declaration of rights into the Constitution seemed unnecessary.  He also challenged Congress' involvement with proposals that originated from the States.  Jackson’s reasoning questioned the need for a Bill of Rights to protect the people from a group of lawmakers who themselves after two years of service will return to their homes and live under any tyranny that they may vote into place.  So why, he argued, would members of Congress do such a thing?  Jackson went on to explain that proposing amendments was not right because ratification had not yet been achieved in Rhode Island and North Carolina, meaning that they were not yet a part of the union.  In Rhode Island, Jackson explained, an anti-federal interest remained, and they too should have consent over amendments, as well.


Jay, John – First Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court, 1789-1795.  Born: December 23, 1745, New York City, New York; Death: May 17, 1829, Bedford, New York.  Education: Columbia University.  Jay was the author of 5 of the 85 Federalist Papers.  He resigned as the first Chief Justice to the United States to accept the position of Governor of New York, 1795-1801.  Once his term as Governor of New York had ended, President John Adams offered to Jay the position as Chief Justice again, but Jay turned it down, considering the position to be too weak, and beneath is dignity.  Also, during his long career involved in the early politics of this country, he served as U.S. Secretary of State, 1789-1790; U.S. Secretary of Foreign Affairs, 1789; U.S. Minister to Spain, 1779-1782; 6th President of the Continental Congress, 1778-1779; Delegate to the Second Continental Congress from New York, 1775-1776, 1778-1779; Delegate to the First Continental Congress from New York, 1774.


Jefferson, Thomas – The principal author of the Declaration of Independence; The third President of the United States from 1801 to 1809.  Nicknames: "Sage of Monticello", "Apostle of the Constitution".  Born: April 13, 1743; Shadwell, Virginia; Died: July 4, 1826; Monticello, Virginia.  Education: College of William & Mary (1760–1762).  Second Vice President of the United States (1797-1801).  Responsible for the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.  Thomas Jefferson was among the early supporters of the cause of American independence.  He was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1768, joining forces with fellow radicals, Patrick Henry and George Washington.  Author: "A Summary View of the Rights of British America," 1774.  The work established his reputation as one of the most eloquent advocates of the American cause.   In 1775, Jefferson attended the Second Continental Congress, which created the Continental Army and appointed Jefferson's fellow Virginian, George Washington, as its commander-in-chief.


Johnson, Andrew 17th President of the United States, Democrat.  In Office: April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869.  Born: December 29, 1808. Died: July 31, 1875.  Served as 16th Vice President of the United States under Abraham Lincoln.  Johnson became President after the assassination of President Lincoln and served during the Reconstruction Period.  Johnson was impeached in March of 1868, but was acquitted by the Senate in May of 1868.  Johnson was the third U.S. President to have his veto overridden by Congress, an action that became common during his presidency (15, which remains the most for any President), due to disagreements regarding reconstruction strategies.


Johnson, Lyndon B. – Born: August 27, 1908, Stonewall Texas; Died: January 22, 1973, Stonewall Texas.  Democrat.  36th President of the United States, 1963-1969.  Vice President of the United States, 1961-1963.  U.S. Senator from Texas, 1949-1961.  Member, U.S. House of Representatives from Texas, 1937-1949.  As Senator, his “Johnson Amendment” in 1954 was added as a provision to the U.S. Tax Code, which served to limit the political speech of non-profit organizations, and churches.  As Vice President he sought to increase the powers of the office by seeking to transfer authority of Senate Majority Leader to the vice presidency.  He also sought to increase his influence in the executive branch.  Both attempts were met with vehement opposition.  Johnson was sworn in as President on Air Force One in Dallas two hours and eight minutes after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.   President, Johnson’s domestic policy launched his “Great Society” legislation, expanding his “War on Poverty,” which also increased dramatically federal funding into public schools.  After a 75-day filibuster by Democrats in the U.S. Senate against Kennedy’s civil rights bill, which had been drafted by Republican congressional leaders, the Senate voted 73-27 in favor of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.  Johnson signed it into law on July 2, 1964.  Martin Luther King Jr. called the legislation a “second emancipation.”  Johnson escalated America’s involvement in the Vietnam War, a decision that was later met with anti-war protests.  The number of troops in Vietnam increase dramatically, from 16,000 in 1963 to 525,000 in 1967.  The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 removed national origins quotas in the country’s immigration laws, resulting in dramatic increases of immigrants from Mexico and Asia.  Johnson signed the Gun Control Act of 1968 on October 22, 1968, which was, and still remains, one of the largest and farthest reaching federal gun control laws in American History.  Urban riot marred much of Johnson’s presidency, with disturbances breaking out in Harlem (1964), Watts in Los Angeles (1965), Newark (1967), and a wave of riots in over a hundred cities in April of 1968 after the assassination of Martin Luther King.  Johnson was unsurprised by the riots, saying, “What did you expect?  I don't know why we're so surprised.  When you put your foot on a man's neck and hold him down for three hundred years, and then you let him up, what's he going to do?  He's going to knock your block off.”  In 1967, Johnson appointed the first Africa-American Supreme Court Justice, Thurgood Marshall.




Karl Marx’s 10 Planks of Communism – Karl Marx’s 10 Planks to seize power and destroy freedom was included in The Communist Manifesto, an 1848 political pamphlet commissioned by the Communist League, and originally published in London.  The manifesto presented an approach to class struggle, placing blame on the conflicts of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production.  The manifesto is a summary of the theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels regarding the nature of society and politics.  The document predicted the demise of capitalism, and its inevitable replacement by socialism.  The authors, to achieve the transition to socialism, call for a “forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions.”

Kennedy, Edward “Ted” – Born: February 22, 1932; Died: August 25, 2009, Hyannis Port Massachusetts.  Youngest son of Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., youngest brother of President John F. Kennedy and Senator Robert F. Kennedy, both victims of assassination.  Ted was a United States Senator from Massachusetts, 1962-2009.  The Chappaquiddick incident in 1969 led to Kennedy pleading guilty to leaving the scene of an accident that resulted in the death of his passenger, Mary Jo Kopechne, and a two-month suspended sentence.  Later in his political career Edward became known as a major figure and spokesman for American progressivism.


Kennedy, John F. Born: May 29, 1917, Brookline, Massachusetts; Died: November 22, 1963, Dallas, Texas.  Democrat.  35th President of the United States, January 20, 1961 to November 22, 1963.  U.S. Senator, Massachusetts, 1953-1960.  U.S. House of Representatives, 1947-1953.  Authorized failed Bay of Pigs Invasion, 1961, and served during the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962.  Majority of his presidency dealt with managing relations with the Soviet Union during the height of the Cold War.  Kennedy was a World War II veteran.  Before his presidency he won a Pulitzer Prize for his biography, “Profiles in Courage.”  He is the second youngest to hold the Office of the President, having been inaugurated at the age of 43.  He is the only Roman Catholic to occupy the office.  Kennedy initiated the creation of security ties with Israel, and is credited with being the founder of the U.S.-Israeli military alliance.  In 1960, Kennedy stated, “Israel will endure and flourish. It is the child of hope and the home of the brave. It can neither be broken by adversity nor demoralized by success. It carries the shield of democracy and it honors the sword of freedom.”  November 22, 1963, Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas.  

Kentucky Resolutions – The Kentucky Resolutions (1798, authored by Thomas Jefferson), and the Virginia Resolutions (1799, authored by James Madison), were presented to, and passed by, the legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798.  The resolutions argued that the federal government had no authority to exercise power not specifically delegated to it in the Constitution.  In the Virginia Resolution, Madison explained that by enacting the Alien and Sedition Acts, Congress was exercising “a power not delegated by the Constitution, but on the contrary, expressly and positively forbidden by one of the amendments thereto; a power, which more than any other, ought to produce universal alarm, because it is leveled against that right of freely examining public characters and measures, and of free communication among the people thereon, which has ever been justly deemed, the only effectual guardian of every other right.”  In the Kentucky Resolutions, Jefferson asserted that not only were the Alien and Seditions Acts unconstitutional, but that the States had the power to nullify them, and any other unconstitutional federal laws.  “[T]he several states who formed that instrument [the Constitution], being sovereign and independent, have the unquestionable right to judge of its infraction; and that a nullification, by those [states], of all unauthorized acts….is the rightful remedy.”

Keynes, John Maynard – Born: June 5, 1883, England; Died April 21, 1946, England.  British economist who developed a school of thought that consumerism dictates economic activity, and to reduce the boundaries of economic expansion and retraction government must manage the market with strategies designed to encourage consumer activity.  His work, Treatise on Money, published in two volumes in 1930, stated when money being saved exceeds the amount being invested – which can happen if interest rates are too high – then unemployment will rise.  He was critical of the British government's austerity measures during the Great Depression.  He stated budget deficits were a good thing, and that growth of business in the private sector could not be trusted.


King, Jr., Martin Luther – Born: January 15, 1929, Atlanta, Georgia; Died: April 4, 1968, Memphis, Tennessee.  Baptist Minister and Civil Rights Activist.  Advocated for equality through non-violent civil disobedience, a style of activism inspired by his Christian Faith and the inspiration of Mahatma Gandhi.  First President of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).  January 10, 1957 – April 4, 1968.  Co-organizer of the 1963 March on Washington.  Nobel Peace Prize recipient in 1964.  Co-organizer of the Selma to Montgomery marches, 1965.  While planning the Poor People’s Campaign national occupation of Washington D.C. in 1968, Dr. King was assassinated.  Posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal.  A federal holiday in his honor was established in 1986 by legislation signed by President Ronald Reagan.


King, Rufus – Born: March 24, 1755, Scarborough, Mass.; Died: April 29, 1827, New York City.  Veteran, American Revolution.  Delegate to the Continental Congress.  Signer of the United States Constitution.  U.S. Senator, 1789-1796, 1813-1819, 1820-1825.  Minister to Britain, 1796-1803, 1825-1826.  Abolitionist who added provisions to the Northwest Ordinance barring slavery in the Northwest Territory.  While he supported the concept of “gradual emancipation,” in 1817, he supported Senate action to abolish the domestic slave trade and, in 1819, staunchly defended an antislavery amendment to the Missouri statehood bill.  King was the last Federalist Party presidential candidate to be fielded, losing to James Monroe in 1816.



Laurens, Henry Born: March 6, 1724; Charleston, S.C.; Death: December 8, 1792; Charleston, S.C.  President of the Continental Congress (1777-1778); Signer of the Articles of Confederation.  He voted to Ratify the U.S. Constitution as a member of the South Carolina Ratifying Convention in 1788.  He was imprisoned for Treason against the British Empire at the Tower of London in England, 1780-1781; becoming the only American to have been held in the Tower of London.  In 1783 Laurens was sent to Paris as one of the Peace Commissioners for the negotiations leading to the Treaty of Paris.


Lee, Richard Henry Born: January 20, 1732; Westmorel and County, Virginia.  Death: June 19, 1794; Westmoreland County, Virginia.  The member of the Second Continental Congress who gave the motion calling for the colonies' independence from Great Britain.  Signer of the Articles of Confederation.  His "resolution for independency" of June 1776 led to the United States Declaration of Independence.  Signer of the Declaration of Independence.  United States Senator from Virginia from 1789 to 1792.


Lincoln, Abraham – Born: February 12, 1809, Sinking Spring Farm, Kentucky; Died: April 15, 1865, Washington, D.C.  16th President of the United States.  Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Illinois, 1847-1849.  Member of the Illinois State House of Representatives, 1834-1842.  President during the War Between the States.  Assassinated by John Wilkes Booth while attending a play at Ford’s Theater in Washington, D.C.  First Republican Party President of the United States.  Lincoln’s image is carved into the stone of Mount Rushmore.  Lincoln’s portrait appears on the U.S. Penny, and the Five Dollar Bill.  Due to many of his actions and policies as president that he believed to be necessary in war time, Lincoln is sometimes referred to as the “benevolent dictator,” or that he presided over a “constitutional dictatorship.”


Livingston, William Born: November 30, 1723; Albany, New York.  Death: July 25, 1790; Elizabeth, New Jersey.  1st Governor of New Jersey, 1776-1790.  Signer of the U.S. Constitution.  Founder of the weekly journal, the Independent Reflector.  The journal was New York's first serial non-newspaper publication, and the only one being published in British North America at the time.  Publication of the Reflector ceased with the fifty-second issue after political pressure was brought to bear upon its printer, James Parker.


Locke, John Born: August 29, 1632, Wrington, United Kingdom.  Died: October 28, 1704, High Laver, United Kingdom.  Locke was an English political philosopher during the Enlightenment.  He was a major influence on the formation of the American System of Government.  His political theories of the rights of man, including property, led to the phrase "Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."  The original words were "life, liberty, and estate".  Locke described society as being a social contract between the individuals inhabiting a society.  Education: Westminster School, Christ Church, Oxford.  Author: Second Treatise on Government.




Madison, James – Fourth President of the United States 1809-1817, Secretary of State 1801-1809, "Father of the United States Constitution," "Father of the Bill of Rights."  Born: March 16, 1751; Belle Grove, Port Conway, Virginia.  Died: June 28, 1836; Montpelier, Virginia.   Education: College of New Jersey (now Princeton University).  Madison was the author of 29 of the 85 Essays which comprise The Federalist Papers.  President During the Second Barbary War and the War of 1812.  As a framer and defender of the Constitution he had no peer.  The finest part of Madison's performance as president was his concern for preserving the Constitution.

Magna Carta The Great Charter of the Liberties of England; the first document that limited the power of government by subjecting it to the rule of law; signed in June 15, 1215 between the barons of Medieval England and King John.

Marbury v. Madison, 1803 – Court ruling regarding an undelivered court commission that is also credited for being the legal authority for judicial review based on the written judicial opinion by Chief Justice John Marshall.

Marshall, John Born: September 24, 1755; Germantown, Virginia.  Death: July 6, 1835; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  Member the U.S. House of Representatives, 1799-1800.  He served as U.S. Secretary of State, 1800-1801.  He served as the Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court, 1801-1835 (the longest serving Chief Justice in American History).  Marshall’s first landmark case was Marbury v. Madison, which established the basis of judicial review in 1803.  Chief Justice John Marshall spent his 35 years on the Supreme Court attempting to establish, and expand federal supremacy.  He developed federal supremacy in his opinion of the Mcculloch v. Maryland case in 1819 where the Court invalidated a Maryland law that taxed all banks in the State, including a branch of Alexander Hamilton’s creation, the national Bank of the United States.  Marshall held that although none of the enumerated powers of Congress explicitly authorized the incorporation of the national bank, the Necessary and Proper Clause provided the basis for Congress's action.  Marshall concluded that "the government of the Union, though limited in its power, is supreme within its sphere of action."


Martin, Luther Born: February 20, 1748; Piscataway, New Jersey.  Death: July 10, 1826; New York, New York.  He refused to sign the Constitution because he felt it violated states' rights.  He was a leading Anti-Federalist.  His work with George Mason and Patrick Henry assisted the passage of the Bill of Rights.


Marx, Karl – Born: May 5, 1818; Trier, Germany.  Died: March 14, 1883; London, United Kingdom.  The Father of Communism.  A political philosopher, follower of Hegelian political philosophy, revolutionary socialist.  Author: Communist Manifesto, Das Kapital.

Mason, George  Born: December 11, 1725; Fairfax County, Virginia.  Death: October 7, 1792; Fairfax County, Virginia.  Mason was an Anti-Federalist.  Though a member of the Constitutional Convention, Mr. Mason advocated strong local government and a weak central government, leading him to be very critical of the formation of the federal government through the Constitution and refusing to sign the final draft.  His protests ultimately led to the creation of, and the adoption of, the Bill of Rights.  At the Constitutional Convention, Mason vigorously opposed the provision that allowed the slave trade to continue until 1808 (despite being a slaveholder himself), referring to the slave trade as "disgraceful to mankind."


Missouri Compromise – Congressional act associated with the slavery debate associated with the admittance of Missouri as a member of the Union.  Missouri’s 1819 request for statehood challenged the attempt to keep the number of free and slave States evenly divided.  The Missouri Compromise of 1820 granted Missouri’s request for admission to the Union, provided that Maine would also be admitted as a free State so as not to upset the balance between free and slave States.  The act also included an amendment that drew a line across the western region of the country, establishing a new boundary between free and slave States and territories.  The amendment was later negated by the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854.

Monroe, James – Born: April 28, 1758, Monroe Hall, Virginia.  Died: July 4, 1831, New York City, New York.  5th President of the United States, 1817-1825.  Revolutionary War Veteran.   U.S. Secretary of War, 1814-1815.  U.S. Secretary of State, 1811-1817.  Governor of Virginia, 1811-1811.  U.S. Minister to the U.K., 1803-1807.  U.S. Minister to France, 1794-1796.  U.S. Senator from Virginia, 1790-1794.  Member of the Congress of the Confederation from Virginia, 1783-1786.  Monroe was assisted Robert R. Livingston in France with the negotiating of the Louisiana Purchase, which also mean acquiring New Orleans and control of trade of the Mississippi River.  Last president of Jefferson’s Republican Party before it became known as the Democratic Party.  He made two long national tours to build national trust, ushering in what a Boston newspaper heralded as the “Era of Good Feelings.”  He missed having a unanimous electoral vote in the Election of 1820 by one electoral vote.  He ran unopposed since the collapsing Federalist Party offered no opponent.  William Plumer, the one elector not to vote for Monroe, stated he did so because he thought Monroe to be incompetent.  Plumer cast his vote for John Quincy Adams.  Later, a story arose that he cast his dissenting vote so that George Washington would be the only president in history to achieve a unanimous vote, though the story was never confirmed to be true.  As President, Monroe signed the Missouri Compromise.  He was best known for his policy, the “Monroe Doctrine”, which prohibited European colonization, or European intervention, of the Americas beginning in 1823.  He was sympathetic to the Latin American revolutionary movements against Spain and had decided non-intervention for peoples who sought to establish republican governments, such as was the U.S. policy during the French Revolution, were unacceptable.  The Monroe Doctrine refrained from military support, and reiterated traditional U.S. policy of neutrality regarding European wars and conflicts, while declaring that the U.S. would not tolerate recolonization of any country in the Americas by any European country once the New World country gained independence.  Monroe also stated that European countries should no longer consider the Western Hemisphere for new colonization, aiming his statement at Russia who was attempting to expand its colony along the Pacific Coast.


Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de – 1689-1755, French lawyer and political philosopher famous for his articulation of separation of powers and a mixed constitution which proved to be pivotal to the creation of the United States Constitution. 



Naked Communist, The An observation regarding the conflict between communism and freedom in the modern era by W. Cleon Skousen.  Originally published in 1958, the author’s goal was to collect all of the facts about communism in one volume.


New Views of the Constitution of the United StatesA classic defense of states' rights in the literature of the early republic by John Taylor of Caroline.  The book was published in 1823, a year before the author's death.  The book was intended to be one last thought about the nature of the American union.  The essential question Taylor asks is, "What is the American form of government -- national or federal?"  Taylor, in line with his Jeffersonian roots and reputation as a proponent of a separation of powers, answers, “federal.”  We are, he says, a federation of independent sovereign states, not a consolidated nation.

Newsom, Gavin – Born: October 10, 1967, San Francisco, California.  Governor of California, assumed Office 2019.  Lieutenant Governor of California, 2011-2019.  Mayor of San Francisco, 2004-2011.  Progressive Liberal who promotes the homosexual agenda and Marxist ideas such as universal health care.  In 2004 violated State law by ordering San Francisco’s city clerk to begin issuing marriage licenses to homosexual couples.  In 2005 a scandal emerged of Newsom having an extra-marital affair with is campaign manager’s wife.  He was not removed from office.  In 2007 Newsom defied federal immigration law by declaring San Francisco a “sanctuary city” (allowing illegal aliens to stay in San Francisco without consequence of law).  Supporter of the Folsom Street Fair, an event notorious for its public display of perverse acts, public nudity, and anti-Christian platform.  In 2008 Newsom’s San Francisco violated federal law by flying illegal alien juveniles out of the country.


Nixon, Richard 37th President of the United States, Republican.  In Office: January 20, 1969 - August 9, 1974.  Born: January 9, 1913.  Died: April 22, 1994.  President Nixon ended American involvement in the Vietnam War in 1973.  Nixon’s visit to China in 1972 led to diplomatic relations with the communist country.  The moon landing of Apollo 11 occurred during Nixon’s presidency on July 20, 1969.  Neil Armstrong became the first person to step onto the lunar surface.  After the escalation of the Watergate Scandal, Nixon resigned August 9, 1974 in the face of a certain impeachment. 

Northwest Ordinance – Adopted July 13, 1787, Second Continental Congress.  Provided rules for admitting new States from the territory to the Union, prohibited slavery in the region, and listed a bill of rights for the territory.  The territory’s region included modern-day Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and a portion of Minnesota.  The Northwest Ordinance was later affirmed by the U.S. Congress under the new government established by the U.S. Constitution on August 7, 1789.

Nullification CrisisConfrontation between the State of South Carolina and the federal government regarding Tariff Acts of 1828 and 1832.  South Carolina maintained that the State had the right to make null and void any federal law, but James Madison defended the federal government, stating that nullification was only for the purpose of unconstitutional laws, not “any” law a State disagreed with. 


Obama, Barack – 44th President of the United States, Democrat. January 20, 2009 – January 20, 2017.  Born: August 4, 1961, Honolulu, Hawaii.  First black President of the United States.  First President born outside the continental United States.  U.S. Senator from Illinois, 2005-2008.  Member of the Illinois Senate, 1997-2004.  Received the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize, the fourth president to be awarded the prize, the third to receive it while in office.  After graduating from Columbia University, but before attending Harvard Law School, Obama served as a Community Organizer from Chicago, and he has continued his radical community organizer activism in his post-presidential life.

Olive Branch Petition – Written by John Dickinson, the petition was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 5 and submitted to King George on July 8, 1775.  It was an attempt to appease The Crown by asserting the rights of the colonists while maintaining their loyalty to the British crown.


Paine, Thomas – Born: February 9, 1737, Thetford, Norfolk, Great Britain; Died: June 8, 1809, New York City.  Founding Father of the United States whose pamphlets, “Common Sense,” and “The American Crisis” proved to be among the most influential writings at the start of the American Revolution.  Became deeply involved in the French Revolution.  In defense of his support for the French Revolution, he wrote, “Rights of Man.”  His work, “The Age of Reason,” argued against the Christian religion in order to promote secular reason and free thought.  Only six people attended his funeral, likely a response to his criticisms of Christianity.  Paine described himself as being a “deist.”


Patrick, Deval – Born: July 31, 1956, Chicago, Illinois.  Democrat.  Governor of Massachusetts, 2007-2015.  U.S. Assistant Attorney General, Civil Rights Division, 1994-1997.  During his governorship of Massachusetts he oversaw the implantation of the State’s 2006 Health Care Reform Program enacted during Mitt Romney’s time as governor.  Patrick is the managing director at Bain Capital, and is being groomed by the Democrat Party for a run for president in 2020.


Penn, William Born: October 14, 1644; London, England; Death: July 30, 1718; Ruscombe, Berkshire, England.  In his twenties, Penn converted to the Quaker religion, and was jailed several times for his resistance to the Church of England.  By the 1670s, Penn became a prominent figure in the Quaker community.  In 1675, he was asked to resolve a land dispute between Quaker property owners in the American colony of West New Jersey.  He settled the dispute, and then was chosen to organize the founding of a Quaker colony in America.  Penn received a charter for this territory in 1681.  He was made proprietor and governor of the new colony, which the king titled "Pennsylvania," and William Penn moved there in 1682.  Many of the principles used in establishing the government in the Pennsylvania Colony served as inspiration for the United States Constitution.  Pennsylvania was one of two colonies, the other being Rhode Island, that decided not to be a strict theocracy.  While Pennsylvania avoided theocratic rule in the sense that all Christian denominations were welcome, one was still required to be a Christian in order to serve as a government official.

Philadelphia Federal Convention – An early American convention held May 14, 1787 to September 17, 1787.  The convention was presided over by George Washington, and consisted of delegates from twelve States.  During the convention the delegates constructed the United States Constitution.  The document establishes the United States federal system of government.  The convention was called with the intention to amend the Articles of Confederation. The Constitution was the product of political compromise after long debates over issues like States’ rights, consent of the governed through representation, and slavery.


Polybius – 200-118 BC, Greek historian and political philosopher who covered the rise of the Roman Republic.  His analysis of the mixed constitution and separation of powers was influential on Montesquieu’s “The Spirit of the Laws.”


Powel, Elizabeth Born: February 10, 1742; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Death: January 17, 1830.  Wife of Samuel Powel, pre-revolutionary and post-revolutionary mayor of Philadelphia.  Friend and confidant of a number of Founding Fathers; particularly George Washington.  Woman in conversation with Benjamin Franklin, of which Franklin responded, “A republic, ma’am, if you can keep it.”

Prigg v. Pennsylvania – U.S. Supreme Court case in 1842 striking down a Pennsylvania State law that prohibited blacks from being taken out of the State, and returned to their slave owners.


Prohibition Era – Period in the United States when there was a constitutional ban on the manufacture, transportation, importation, and sale of alcoholic beverages.  The era lasted from 1920 to 1933.

Publius - Pseudonym used by the three authors of The Federalist Papers (James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay)




Reagan, Ronald – Born: February 6, 1911, Tampico, Illinois; Died: June 5, 2004, Bel Air, Los Angeles; Republican.  40th President of the United States, 1981-1989.  Governor of State of California, 1867-1975.  President, Screen Actors Guild, 1947-1952 and 1959-1960.  Democrat until 1962, at which time he switched to the Republican Party.  He quickly became a leading conservative spokesman for the Barry Goldwater Campaign in 1964.  Served in the U.S. Army Reserve, 1937-1945.  1940s, worked with FBI to root out communist sympathizers in Hollywood.  Testified before the House of Un-American Activities Committee.  Reagan’s efforts of accelerating U.S. military spending, and his speech at the Berlin Wall on June 12, 1987, are credited with leading to the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union (1991).

Reconstruction – Period from 1863 to 1877 in American history.  The era was characterized by the attempt to bring the former Confederate states back into the Union through reconciliation, and an acceptance of the emancipation of the former slaves in the South.  Laws were passed designed to fulfill a vision of enabling the former slave population an adjustment to freedom, citizenship, and equal protection under the Constitution.  While Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson both took moderate positions designed to bring the South back into the Union as quickly as possible, their Republican counterparts in Congress sought stronger measures to not only ensure a rapid acclimation to freedom for the former slaves, but to punish the former Confederates for their “rebellion.”

Reed, Joseph Born: August 27, 1741; Trenton, New Jersey.  Death: March 5, 1785; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  Third President of Pennsylvania, 1778-1781.  Signer of the Articles of Confederation while a delegate to the Continental Congress.  During the Revolutionary War Reed held the rank of colonel and served in the capacity of secretary and aide-de-camp to General George Washington.  Reed set the design for the First Navy Flag, the Evergreen Tree of Liberty flag, including the motto, “An Appeal To Heaven.”  During his term as president of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, in addition to prosecuting Benedict Arnold, Reed oversaw the abolition of slavery in Pennsylvania and the awarding of Revolutionary soldiers with lifelong "half-pay".

Repeal Movement – As with the Temperance Movement, women were a key factor in the anti-prohibition campaign.  The Women’s Organization for National Prohibition Reform argued that the effects of prohibition included the unexpected consequences of the rise of a criminal class, the corruption of public officials, and a widespread disrespect for the rule of law, which represented a serious threat to America’s moral foundation and her homes and families.  Their efforts, and the federal government's desire to enact an alcohol tax to assist with revenue during the Great Depression, led to the Twenty-First Amendment, which repealed Prohibition.


Revolutionary War – see American Revolution

Rogers, William – (1751–1824) An American clergyman who is perhaps most famous for leading the Constitutional Convention in prayer on July 4, 1787, at the Reformed Calvinistic Church of Philadelphia.  Besides being the first student to attend and graduate Brown University (then known as Rhode Island College), from 1771 to 1824, Rogers was a Baptist clergyman, serving as pastor of the First Baptist Church of Philadelphia from 1772 to 1775.  He also served as a chaplain in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War.


Romney, Mitt – Born: March 12, 1947, Detroit, Michigan.  Republican Party Presidential Candidate, 2014.  Governor of Massachusetts, 2003-2007.  United States Senator, Assumed Office January 3, 2019.  Mitt’s father, George, was also an American politician, losing the presidential nomination in 1968 to Richard Nixon.  George Romney was later appointed to the Nixon cabinet.  Mitt’s mother, Lenore, ran for U.S. Senate in 1970, but lost.  An American businessman, Mitt’s consulting history with Bain Capital led to his role as president and CEO of the 2002 Salt Lake City Olympic Games Organizing Committee.  Mitt has been credited with turning the Olympics in Salt Lake around from a $379 million shortfall of its revenue goals, to a surplus of $100 million, largely through strategies centered around a restructuring of the organization’s leadership and policies.  He reduced budgets, and boosted fundraising.  Romney’s first attempt to enter the political world was when he ran for U.S. Senate in Massachusetts in 1994.


Roosevelt, Franklin Delano – Born: January 30, 1882, Hyde Park, New York.. Died: April 12, 1945, Warm Springs, Georgia.  Democrat.  32nd President of the United States, 1933-1945.  Governor of New York, 1929-1932.  Assistant Secretary of the Navy, 1913-1932.  Member, New York State Senate, 1911-1913.  FDR won a record four presidential elections, which later encouraged the passage of the Twenty-Second Amendment, which limits the President to two terms.  He served as President during World War II, and he initiated the development of the world’s first atomic bomb.  He died prior to the end of the war.  The Axis Powers surrendered to the Allies in the months following Roosevelt’s death, during the presidency of Roosevelt’s successor, Harry S. Truman.


Roosevelt, Theodore – Nickname: Born: October 27, 1858, New York City, New York.  Died: January 6, 1919, Oyster Bay, New York.  Republican.  26th President of the United States, 1901-1909.  Vice President of the United States, 1901-1901.  Governor of New York: 1899-1900.  Assistant Secretary of the Navy, 1897-1898.  Member, New York State Assembly, 1882-1884.  A progressive who became a driving force for the Progressive Era during the early Twentieth Century.  His face is depicted on Mount Rushmore alongside George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln.  Roosevelt was Assistant Secretary of the Navy when the Spanish-American War was declared shortly after the February 15, 1898 sinking of the USS Maine.  He resigned his post and formed the First U.S. Volunteer Calvary Regiment.  His “Rough Riders” was a temporary unit active during the Spanish-American War.  They landed in Cuba on June 23, 1898 and engaged the enemy there.  His Rough Riders became famous for the charge up Kettle Hill on July 1, 1898.  In 2001, Roosevelt was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions in Cuba, an honor blocked during his lifetime by Army officials annoyed by the headlines that Roosevelt was grabbing.  On September 2, 1901, a mere four days before President William McKinley was shot by an assassin, Vice President Teddy Roosevelt said to supporters at the Minnesota State Fair, “Speak softly and carry a big stick, and you will go far.”  He is the youngest person to have become President of the United States, taking office at the age of 42 after McKinley died from his gunshot wounds on September 14.  Roosevelt served the remainder of McKinley’s term without a Vice President as there was no provision at the time for filling a vacant V.P. seat.  His progressive policies filled out his “Square Deal”, which promised fairness, the breaking of trusts, federal regulation of the railroads, federal regulation of food, and the federal regulation of drugs.  He also made conservation a priority in the hopes of preserving America’s natural resources, including the establishment of new national parks, forests, and monuments.  In the 1904 Election he won the Electoral College 336-140, after which time his move to the left away from the Republican Party base became more persistent.  He called for a series of progressive reforms from income tax to federal laws enforcing fair employee rights.  He won the 1906 Nobel Peace prize as a result of his successful efforts in brokering the end of the Russo-Japanese War.  He did not run for a third term, considering a limitation of terms for a President as a mechanism providing a check against dictatorship.  When his successor, and friend, Howard Taft, turned out to be a much more conservative occupant of the White House, refusing to sign a proposed federal reserve act, he ran in 1912 as a third candidate.  His Progressive, or “Bull Moose Party”, of which he founded, called for a wide-range of progressive reforms.  His presidential run split the Republican vote, and enabled fellow progressive Woodrow Wilson, the Democrat Party nominee, to win the election.


Rousseau, Jean-Jacques Born: June 28, 1712, Geneva, Switzerland; died: July 2, 1778, Ermenonville, France.  Rousseau was a political philosopher whose treatises and novels influenced societal engineering during the Enlightenment.  His writings also inspired the leaders of the French Revolution and American figures like Alexander Hamilton.  In his discourses, Rousseau reasoned that true liberty must be properly maintained by a ruling elite that expresses the “general will” of all members of the society.


Rush, Benjamin Born: January 4, 1746; Byberry, Pennsylvania.  Death: April 19, 1813; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  Education: Princeton University, University of Edinburgh.  Rush was the founder of Dickinson College.  He was a physician, writer, and educator.  He was a Signer of the Declaration of Independence.  He served as Surgeon General of the Continental Army.  He was a leader in Pennsylvania's ratification of the Constitution in 1788.  Thomas Paine consulted Dr. Rush while writing his pamphlet, “Common Sense.”  Consulted Lewis and Clark before they embarked on their exploratory journey to the frontier. 

Russian Revolution – A series of Communist Revolutions (Russian Revolution of 1905, February Revolution of 1917, and the October Revolution of 1917, Russian Civil War of 1918) that led to the collapse of the Russian Empire as ruled over by the Tsarist autocracy.  The revolution paved the way for the creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1921. 




Second Great Awakening – A Protestant religious revival during the early 19th century in the United States.  The movement began around 1790, gaining momentum by 1800 and surging with a rise in church memberships after 1820.  The episode stimulated the establishment of many reform movements designed to remedy the evils of society.  Historians named the Second Great Awakening in the context of the First Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1740s and of the Third Great Awakening of the late 1850s to early 1900s.


Shays’ Rebellion – An uprising led by a former militia officer, Daniel Shays, which broke out in western Massachusetts in 1786 over the economic hardship of the Revolutionary War veterans as a result of a poor economic climate, and the pay of the militiamen with worthless U.S. Government paper money.

Sherman, Roger Born: April 19, 1721, Newton, Massachusetts; Death: July 23, 1793, New Haven, Connecticut.  Sherman served as the first mayor of New Haven, Connecticut.  He was a part of the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence.  He is the only person to have signed all four of America’s founding documents, the Continental Association (Articles of Association), the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution.  Thomas Jefferson, when referring to Sherman, said he was "a man who never said a foolish thing in his life."


Smith, Adam – Scottish economist whose notable ideas include free market, a division of labor, and supply and demand economic theory.  Born: June 16, 1723, Scotland; Death: July 17, 1790; Scotland.  Notable Works: The Wealth of Nations, The Theory of Moral Sentiments.  The Wealth of Nations is considered the first modern work of economics.

Spanish-American War – War fought between the United States and Spain in 1898.  The trigger event that sparked the dawn of hostilities began in the aftermath of the internal explosion of the USS Maine in Havana Harbor in Cuba, leading to U.S. intervention in the Cuban War of Independence.

Stockton, Richard – Born: October 1, 1730, Princeton, New Jersey; Died: February 28, 1781, Princeton, New Jersey.  Signer, Declaration of Independence.  Member, first graduating class, Princeton University.  First alumnus elected trustee.  Member of New Jersey Province Council, 1768; Judge New Jersey Province Supreme Court, 1774; Delegate to the Continental Congress, 1776.  During the American Revolution, after being betrayed by British Loyalists, he was imprisoned, brutally treated, and released January 3, 1777.  He signed an oath of allegiance to the King to gain his freedom, of which he revoked a year later by signing oaths of adjuration and allegiance to the United States prescribed by the New Jersey legislature.

, Zephaniah – Born: February 27, 1759, Wareham, Massachusetts.  Died: September 27, 1823, Warren Ohio.  Member of the Connecticut General Assembly from 1787 to 1793, U.S. House of Representatives from Connecticut from 1793 to 1797.  He served as a Connecticut State Supreme Court Judge 1801 to 1819.  He was the author of “A System of the Law of the State of Connecticut” (1795), “A Digest of the Laws of Evidence in Civil and Criminal Cases” (1810), and “A Digest of the Laws of the State of Connecticut” (1820).  He compiled and edited the first official, authorized version of “The Laws of the United States of America” (1796).



Tallmadge, James – Born: January 29, 1778, Stanford, New York; Died September 29, 1853, New York City.  Member, U.S. House of Representatives, New York (District 4), 1817-1819.  Delegate to the New York State Constitutional Convention of 1821, and again when a new Constitution was presented in 1846.  Member of the New York State Assembly, 1824.  Lieutenant Governor of New York, 1825-1826.  Education: Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.  His “Tallmadge Amendment” to the bill for Missouri statehood would have restricted slavery in Missouri, and provided for its future termination.  The House of Representatives adopted the Tallmadge Amendment, but the U.S. Senate rejected it. 

Tariff Act of 1828 – The "Tariff of Abominations" was passed by Congress May 19, 1828, and was structured to protect industry in the northern United States.  The law was also supported by rural western frontier States.  Manufacturing industries in the northern United States were facing hardships as a result of lower priced imported goods.  The purpose of the tariff was to protect these industries by taxing most of those goods at 38%. The South did not favor the protectionist tariff because it escalated the prices on goods the region did not produce.  It also indirectly negatively influenced The South because a reduction of an influx of British goods to the U.S. made it difficult for the British to pay for the cotton they imported from the South.


Tariff Act of 1832 – After South Carolina threatened to nullify the Tariff of 1828, the federal government passed the Tariff of 1832.  The updated law reduced some of the tariff rates that South Carolina had been concerned about, but the reductions were not enough for South Carolina, or Vice President Calhoun.  Calhoun resigned on December 28, 1832, and South Carolina convened a convention that decided by a vote of 136 to 26 to adopt an ordinance of nullification, declaring both the tariffs of both 1828 and 1832 unconstitutional and unenforceable in South Carolina.  A compromise was later reached with the Tariff of 1833.  It was during this time the Jeffersonian Republican Party was changed to the Democratic Party, and the Constitutionalists would later bail out and form a new party known as the Whig Party.

 Temperance Movement – A social movement urging the reduced use of alcoholic beverages during the 19th and early 20th centuries.

Taylor of Caroline, John United States Senator, 1792-1794, 1803, 1822-1824.  Jeffersonian Republican.  Born: December 19, 1753; Caroline County, Virginia; Death: August 21, 1824; Caroline County, Virginia.  He received his education from the College of William and Mary.  He served as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates, 1779-1787.  He was a close friend of Thomas Jefferson.  He authored, "An Inquiry into the Principles and Policy of the Government of the United States," 1814; "Construction Construed and the Constitution Vindicated." 1820; "Tyranny Unmasked. 1822; and the very influential "New Views of the Constitution of the United States." 1823.

Thirteen Virtues by Benjamin Franklin – In his autobiography, Franklin recommends a pursuit of Thirteen Virtues.  He defines each virtue, and explains how they build upon one another.  The whole notion of the Thirteen Virtues emerged after Franklin took a critical look at his own behavior, and he found that too often he traveled down unvirtuous roads that "natural inclination, custom or company might lead me into."  He fell short of his ideal in more than a dozen areas of his life, he concluded.  He ate and drank too much.  He talked too much, especially about himself.  He spent more money than he should.  He didn't finish all his goals.  In short, he wrestled with the very same human nature that each of us are challenged by.  His list of Thirteen Virtues are, Temperance, Silence, Order, Resolution, Frugality, Industry, Sincerity, Justice, Moderation, Cleanliness, Tranquility, Chastity and Humility.

Tocqueville, Alexis Charles Henri Clerel de Born: August 29, 1805; Paris, France.  Death: April 16, 1859; Cannes, France.  He was educated at the University of Paris.  He was the author of “Democracy in America” (1835), and “The Old Regime and the Revolution” (1856).  De Tocqueville was a classical liberal who advocated for representative government, while warning of the extremes of democracy.

Truman, Harry S. – Born: May 8, 1884, Lamar, Missouri; Died: December 26, 1872, Kansas City, Missouri.  Democrat.  33rd President of the United States, 1945-1953.  Vice President of the United States, 1945-1945.  U.S. Senator from Missouri, 1935-1945.  President who approved the use of atomic bombs against Japan in World War II.  Known for implementing the Marshall Plan to rebuild Western Europe’s economy.  Established Truman Doctrine and NATO against Soviet and Chinese Communism.  Co-Founder of the United Nations.  Supported newly independent Israel.  A World War I veteran, Truman assumed office after the death of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on April 12, 1945, during the final months of World War II, and after serving only 82 days as Vice President.  A month later, May 8, the Nazis surrendered and Truman issued the proclamation of V-E Day.  In August, the Japanese refused to surrender, so, with the invasion of mainland Japan imminent, Truman approved the dropping of two atomic bombs which he believed would save many lives on both sides.  An atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6.  Nagasaki was struck three days later.  After the war the remainder of his presidency was marred by many labor strikes, and Truman reacted by vowing to destroy union leaders, calling them “Communist Bridges.”  Truman’s approval rating dropped from a postwar 82% to 32%, and Senator William Fulbright of Arkansas even went so far as to suggest to Truman that he resign.  Recognizing the dangers of communism, Truman began to cooperate closely with Republican leaders on foreign policy.  Domestically, however, Truman remained a New Deal Democrat, advocating for national health insurance and housing reforms.  Truman was also a Wilsonian internationalist who supported the creation of the new United Nations, hoping the new organization would be able to assist in standing against the Soviet Union, which had expanded its influence into Eastern Europe.  The Marshall Plan aimed to restart the floundering European economy, because, as Truman pointed out, “Communism flourishes in economically deprived areas.”  The policies put into motion in an effort to prevent the spread of communism launched the United States into a new war devoid of direct conflict that became known as The Cold War.  As the Soviet Union began to close off access to Berlin, Truman approved a joint effort with the allies to initiate the Berlin Airlift in order to supply the blockaded sectors of the city under allied control.  The campaign delivered food, coal, and other supplies using military aircraft.  The USSR granted ground access less than a year later, but the airlift continued for months afterward.  In 1948, despite a 36% approval rating, and after the party tried to grant the Democratic nomination to World War II General Dwight D. Eisenhower (who would later become a Republican Party President), Truman pulled off the nomination.  Then, after attacking the GOP’s principles limiting federal intrusion into domestic issues, and issuing Executive Order 9981, racially integrating the U.S. Armed Forces (which risked losing Dixiecrat support, but won over a significant portion of the black vote), and while fighting against two Democrat Party revolts, one by Strom Thurmond who declared his candidacy for the presidency on a Dixiecrat ticket, and one by former Vice President Henry Wallace who defected to the Progressive Party, Truman squeaked through with narrow victories in a few critical States, and held on to his progressive midwestern base and most of the Southern States, winning the 1948 Election with 303 electoral votes (to Republican Thomas Dewey’s 189, Thurmond’s 39, and Wallace’s 0).  The media reported, during the election, that Dewey was going to be the inevitable victor.  The margin of victory for Dewey was so large that the three major polling organizations stopped polling well before the election date, thus missing the moment that Truman must have surged past Dewey.  The Chicago Tribune, when only a few returns were in, printed newspapers with the headline, “Dewey Defeats Truman.”  Truman’s second inauguration was the first ever televised nationally.  A year and a half after his electoral victory in 1948 the North Korean army invaded South Korea, starting the Korean War.  In 1951 the Twenty-Second Amendment was ratified, limiting the President to two terms.  A grandfather clause in the amendment allowed Truman to run again, and he seriously considered running for another term in 1952.  He considered enlisting Eisenhower to be his running-mate, but Ike was more interested in seeking the Republican Party nomination.  Truman was entered in the New Hampshire primary, and was defeated handily.  A couple weeks later he formally announced he would not seek another term.  Fear of communist infiltration became a major campaign issue, and the Democrats lost to Republican Candidate Dwight Eisenhower in 1952.  The GOP win ended a twenty year Democrat Party run in the White House.


Trump, Donald J. 45th President of the United States, Republican.  Assumed Office: January 20, 2017.  Born: June 14, 1946.  His wife, Melania, was the second foreign born woman to hold the title of First Lady.  Trump is the second President of the United States to have a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.  The first was Ronald Reagan.  President Trump’s foreign policies led to historical negotiations with North Korea, China, and Iran.  Donald Trump’s election to the presidency in 2016 was considered a stunning political upset by media and political observers.  Polls had consistently placed Democrat nominee Hillary Clinton with a nationwide lead, even in most of the “battleground” States.  Donald Trump is the wealthiest president in U.S. History.  Donald Trump is the first president without prior government or military service.  President Trump’s administration has been largely characterized as being one determined to reduce the size of the federal government, concentrating on rolling back and dismantling many government regulations, reducing taxes, and ordering a government-wide temporary hiring freeze.  The Trump administration officially recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel on December 6, 2017.  President Trump followed up that announcement by officially moving the U.S. Embassy to Jerusalem on May 14, 2018.  Donald Trump's loss in the 2020 Presidential Election was accompanied by various evidence of election fraud.  The validity of the election of Joseph Biden has been questioned by those who support the belief that President Trump actually defeated Biden.


Tubman, Harriet – Born: 1822, Dorchester County, Maryland.  Died: March 10, 1913, Auburn, New York.  Born into slavery, after she escaped she made thirteen missions to rescue about seventy slaves.  Her network of abolitionist activists and safe houses became known as the “Underground Railroad.”  She served as an armed scout and spy for the United States Army during the War Between the States.


Tucker, Thomas Tudor 3rd U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, 1801-1828 (Record for longest serving Treasurer).  Born: June 25, 1745, St. George, Bermuda; Death: May 2, 1828, Washington D.C.  Tucker served as a Member U.S. House of Representatives from South Carolina, 1789-1793; a Member of the Congress of the Confederation, 1787-1788; a Member South Carolina House of Representatives, 1776, and he was a Veteran American Revolutionary War.  Tucker opposed the U.S. Constitution, believing it gave too much power to the central government. 


Tyler, John – Born: March 29, 1790, Charles City County, Virginia; Died: January 18, 1862, Richmond, Virginia.  10th President of the United States, 1841-1845.  Vice President of the U.S., 1841-1841.  U.S. Senator from Virginia, 1827-1836.  Governor of Virginia, 1825-1827.  Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Virginia, 1816-1821.  Tyler was the first vice president to succeed to the office of President of the United States without election, and he served longer than any president in U.S. history not elected to the Office of President.  A constitutionalist who supported States’ Rights, he used the veto pen often believing that many of the bills that reached his desk were unconstitutional.  In turn, he was the first president to see his veto overridden by Congress.  A firm believer in manifest destiny, Tyler supported the annexation of Texas.  He signed a bill to annex Texas three days before leaving office.

Tyranny Unmasked John Taylor of Caroline’s criticism against the protective tariff and the mercantilist policies of the times, as well as an examination of the general principles in relation to commerce, political economy, and a free government.  Originally published in 1822, the book served as an early entrant in the discussion of the principles of governmental power and their relationship to political economy and liberty.

Tytler, Alexander Fraser Born: October 15, 1747, Edinburgh, U.K.; Died: January 5, 1813, Edinburgh, U.K.  Tytler was a Scottish political philosopher, historian, judge and writer.  He served as Professor of Universal History and Greek and Roman Antiquities at the University of Edinburgh.  His writings were influential on the Founding Fathers, and recognized the dangers of pure democracy.  "A democracy is always temporary in nature; it simply cannot exist as a permanent form of government.  A democracy will continue to exist up until the time that voters discover that they can vote themselves generous gifts from the public treasury.  From that moment on, the majority always votes for the candidates who promise the most benefits from the public treasury, with the result that every democracy will finally collapse due to loose fiscal policy…" — Alexander Fraser Tytler, Scottish lawyer and writer, 1770.

Tytler Cycle – A sequence of events Alexander Tytler suggested commonly occur during the lifecycle of democracies and republics.  He theorized that most systems of liberty last between 200 and 250 years.  The sequence was first known to have been presented in the form of a visual cycle in a 1943 speech by Henning W. Prentiss, Jr., president of the Armstrong Cork Company and former president of the National Association of Manufacturers.  The speech was delivered at the February 1943 convocation of the General Alumni Society of the University of Pennsylvania.  Tytler's sequence, and the cycle, starts out with a society in bondage. It then follows the following sequence:

From bondage to spiritual faith;

From spiritual faith to great courage;

From courage to liberty;

From liberty to abundance;

From abundance to complacency;

From complacency to apathy;

From apathy to dependence;

From dependence back into bondage.



United States Constitution – Document that establishes the United States federal system of government; written May 14 through September 17, 1787 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  The convention was called with the intention to amend the Articles of Confederation. The Constitution was the product of political compromise after long debates over issues like States’ rights, consent of the governed through representation, and slavery.



Virginia Ratifying Convention  A convention of 168 delegates in Virginia who met in 1788 to debate whether to ratify, or reject, the United States Constitution.  Each State held conventions to consider ratification of the Constitution.  Virginia was the tenth State to ratify the Constitution, after the requisite nine had already been met.

Volstead Act – Officially, the National Prohibition Act was a U.S. law enacted in 1919, and taking effect in 1920, which provided enforcement of the prohibition of the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages in the United States during an era known as “Prohibition”.

Von Mises, Ludwig – Economist recognized as the leader of the Austrian School of economic thought, an economic theory based on classical liberalism and laissez-faire.  Born September 29, 1881, Ukraine; Died: October 10, 1973, New York City, New York.  His work Human Action presents the case for laissez-faire free market economics as based on praxeology, which is a rational investigation of human decision-making. It rejects positivism within economics, and instead defends the concepts of individualism and the ability of a free market to outdistance any government-planned system. 


War Between the States – War fought in the United States, 1861-1865.  The war ultimately resolved the long-standing controversy over slavery in the United States with the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment shortly after the conclusion of the war.  The war pitted the Union (United States of America) against the Rebels (Confederate States of America).

Warren, Earl 14th Chief Justice of the United States, 1953-1969.  Born: March 19, 1891, Los Angeles, California; Death: July 9, 1974, Washington D.C.  Warren, before he accepted his seat on the bench of the U.S. Supreme Court was the Governor of California, 1943-1953 and Attorney General of California, 1939-1943.  While designated as a Republican, Warren was considered to be a progressive, who, as governor of California, put many of progressive central planning ideas into action.  When Warren was appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court, his fellow justices were all New Deal Democrats appointed by either President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, or President Harry S. Truman.  Warren headed the governmental commission to investigate the death of John F. Kennedy.  The Warren Commission has been accused, since its findings, to have hidden or distorted key evidence regarding the assassination of President Kennedy.  The Commission concluded that the assassination was the action of a single individual.


Warren, Elizabeth – Born: June 22, 1949, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.  Democrat.  United States Senator from Massachusetts, Assumed Office January 3, 2013.  A prominent professor of law who has taught at the University of Texas School of Law, the University of Pennsylvania Law School, and most recently at Harvard Law School.  She specializes in bankruptcy law.


Washington, Bushrod – Born: June 5, 1762, Mount Holly, Virginia; Died: November 26, 1829, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  Nephew of George Washington.  Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.  Appointed by John Adams (for the seat vacated by James Wilson).  Became a strong ally of Chief Justice John Marshall.  While an abolitionist, he did not believe blacks and whites were able to co-exist in society.  He served as the co-founder and the president of the American Colonization Society, which was created with the intent to promote emigration of freed slaves and free blacks to Africa.  The country of Liberia was established for this endeavor.  Washington authored the opinion of Corfield v. Coryell, (1823), listing in his judicial opinion several rights that he claimed were fundamental "privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States" (Article I, Section 2 of the Constitution).

Washington, George
“The Father of our Country.”  Born: February 22, 1732; Westmoreland County, Virginia.  Died: December 14, 1799, Mount Vernon, Virginia.  Washington was the First President of the United States under the U.S. Constitution.  He also served as the Commander in Chief of the colonial armies during the American Revolution, he was a delegate to the Continental Congress, and he was the President of the Constitutional Convention.


Webster, Noah "Father of American Scholarship & Education".  Born: October 16, 1758; Hartford, Connecticut.  Death: May 28, 1843; New Haven, Connecticut.  Education: Yale University.  Webster served in the Connecticut Militia.  Webster dedicated his Speller and Dictionary to providing an intellectual foundation for Americanism.  Webster was an outspoken supporter of the new Constitution.  He wrote a pamphlet entitled "An Examination into the Leading Principles of the Federal Constitution Proposed by the Late Convention Held at Philadelphia," published under the pen name “A Citizen of America.”  The Copyright Act of 1831 was the result of intensive lobbying by Noah Webster and his agents in Congress.  In 1806, Webster published his first dictionary, A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language.  In 1807, Webster began compiling an expanded and fully comprehensive dictionary, “An American Dictionary of the English Language”; it took twenty-six years to complete.  In his later life, Webster fought against the destructive ideas of Jacksonian Democracy.  Webster’s 1828 American Dictionary contained the greatest number of Biblical definitions given in any reference volume.  Webster considered education "useless without the Bible."  Webster helped found the Connecticut Society for the Abolition of Slavery in 1791.

Webster’s Dictionary (1828) Noah Webster’s spellers had been so influential in the schools that he decided to write the first dictionary of American English.  The first edition in 1828 contained about 70,000 entries.  Included in his dictionary were uniquely American terms.

Wilson, James Born: September 14, 1742; Carskerdo, Great Britain.  Death: August 21, 1798; Edenton, North Carolina.  Education: Princeton University, University of Edinburgh.  Signer of the Declaration of Independence.  Elected twice to the Continental Congress.  Delegate at the Constitutional Convention, serving as a primary voice in its drafting.  Along with Roger Sherman, he proposed the Three-Fifths Compromise.  At the Pennsylvania Ratifying Convention Wilson was a primary voice in defending the new Constitution.  In 1789 Wilson was among the first Associate Justices of the U.S. Supreme Court.


Wilson, Woodrow 28th President of the United States, (Democrat) 1913 to 1921, President of Princeton University 1902-1910, Governor of New Jersey 1911-1913.  Born: December 28, 1856; Staunton, Virginia.  Death: February 3, 1924; Washington D.C.  Wilson led the United States through the First World War.  He was a major leader at the Paris [Versailles] Peace Conference in 1919, where he championed the proposed globalist League of Nations, the forerunner of the United Nations.  However, he was unable to obtain Senate approval for U.S. membership.  He suffered debilitating strokes in September 1919.  During the final year and a half of his presidency his wife and staff handled most of his presidential duties.  Wilson oversaw the passage of progressive legislative policies unparalleled until the New Deal in 1933.  The Federal Reserve Act, Federal Trade Commission Act, the Clayton Antitrust Act, and the Federal Farm Loan Act were some of these new policies.  Having taken office one month after ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment, Wilson called a special session of Congress, whose work culminated in the Revenue Act of 1913, introducing an income tax and lowering tariffs.  Wilson asked Congress for what became the Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918, suppressing anti-draft activists by making it a criminal act to criticize the federal government.  Was President when the Seventeenth Amendment was ratified in 1913.


Witherspoon, John Born: February 5, 1723; Gifford, Scotland.  Death: November 15, 1794; Princeton, New Jersey.  Education: University of Edinburgh.  As a Presbyterian minister, Witherspoon was influential in the development of America’s national character.  Delegate from New Jersey in the Second Continental Congress.  Signer of the Declaration of Independence.  Only active member of the clergy, and college president, to sign the document.  He later signed the Articles of Confederation, and supported the ratification of the U.S. Constitution.

Women’s Rights Movement – A movement seeking recognition at the federal level of the right of women to vote and to run for office.  The expression “women’s suffrage” was used for the economic and political reform movement aimed at extending these rights to women without any restrictions or qualifications such as property ownership, payment of tax, or marital status.

Woodward, Richard – Born: 1726, Bristol, England.  Died: 1794, Cloyne, Ireland.  Defended “Protestant Ascendency” in Ireland.  Dean of the Diocese of Clogher within the Church of Ireland, 1764-1781.  Chancellor of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, 1772-1778.  Bishop of Cloyne (Episcopal title that takes its name after the small town of Cloyne in County Cork, Republic of Ireland), 1781-1794.

World War I – The "War to End All Wars" lasted from 1914 to 1918.  The war saw a faceoff between to global military alliances, the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires against the British, Russian, and French Empires.  The Ottoman Empire early on claimed neutrality, but entered the war as an ally to the Central Powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary) October 1914.  The United States, also vowing neutrality and non-intervention remained out of the war during the early years of the conflict.  The sinking of the British ocean liner Lusitania by a German U-boat in 1915 changed the opinion of the American People.  The death toll was nearly 2,000 people, including 128 Americans.  Later, news of the Zimmerman telegram threatening an alliance between Germany and Mexico encouraged President Woodrow Wilson to ask Congress for a declaration of war against Germany. The U.S. officially entered the war April 6, 1917.

World War II – The Second World War lasted from 1939 to 1945.  The Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) opposed the Allies (United States, Great Britain, France, and later, the Soviet Union).  The entry of the United States followed the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941.